Cyber-physical systems where ICT monitors and controls physical objects such as autonomous vehicles may also be involved. The systems will interact and exchange data with each other and receive data from "things" in their vicinity to be able to provide value added services and smart functionality to their users. End users may for example get just in time information, support for self-coordination and situational decision support; and the systems may do data analysis to support event predictions and pro-active measures, for example traffic management measures reducing emissions and congestions.
It is impossible to foresee the behaviour of the elements in such smart city ecosystems. Systems and things may interconnect depending on their location, based on events and incidents that occur, and because of automated decisions taken by smart functions.
Domain related research areas related to ICT for smart cities are:
ICT research areas facilitating the above are among others:
- Qualities for large and long-lived systems-of-systems
- Domain architecture and languages
- Model based development
- Meta design
- Scalability analysis
- Semantic technologies
- Big Data and Artificial intelligence for transport
- Information security
- System safety
- Safety and security
- Secure societies