To main content


The NORSTRAT project prepared a "Nordic Power Road Map 2050" on how the Nordic power system can be developed to be free of CO2 emission.

Contact person

The project was based on scenarios to 2050 and makes quantitative analysis of the power system with particular emphasis on the needs for the transmission network. The effects on the power system from the electrification of transport and heating sector was included in the analyses. Furthermore, recommendations regarding political measures necessary for the development of the transmission network and for the electrification of the transport sector were regarded.

All scenarios was based on a significant expansion of renewable energy in the Nordic region. The new renewable energy is wind power in the Nordic countries, bioenergy in Sweden and Finland, small-scale hydropower in Norway as well as some solar power south in the region. In all scenarios, there was a greater integration between the Nordic countries. In two of the scenarios, profitable investments in increased transmission capacity to countries outside the Nordic region was considered.

NORSTRAT was part of the programme "Sustainable Energy System 2050" from Nordic Energy Research and lasts from 2011 to 2015.


In the transmission grid analysis for the Nordic power system in 2050 we found that the system could be free of GHG emissions with limited (9% increase compared to the 2012 system) expansion of transmission grids. A scenario with 110 TWh/y of export from the Nordic region has large expansions of the transmission grids compared to the system in 2012 (more than 60%).


Project presentation NORSTRAT


Scientific publications

  • J. Møller, Q. Wu, J. Østergaard, A. H. Nielsen, and Y. Ding, " Policies and Initiatives for Carbon Neutrality in Nordic Heating and Transport Systems", in Proc. 2012 International Power Energy Conference, pp. 1-6.
  • Z. Liu, Q. Wu, A. H. Nielsen, J. Østergaard, and Y. Ding, " Electricity Demand Profile with High Penetration of Heat Pumps in Nordic Area", in Proc. 2013 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting, pp. 1-5.
  • Q. Wu, J. Møller, J. Østergaard, A. H. Nielsen, ' Policies and Initiatives for Carbon Neutrality in Nordic', Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 7, pp. 1745-1753, 2013.
  • Book chapter: Albrecht, Nilsson, Åkerman: Electrification of vehicles – policy drivers and impacts in two scenarios, published by Routledge in 2013.
  • B. Nykvist, M Nilsson: The EV paradox – A Multilevel study of why Stockholm is not a leader in Electric Vehicles, Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, online 22 July 2014 DOI: 10.1016/j.eist.2014.06.003,
  • I.Graabak, M.Nilsson, Q. Wu, BH Bakken: Scenarios for a Nordic Power System without greenhouse gas emissions, ECOS 2014, Turku Finland, June 2014
  • Z. Liu, Q. Wu, 'EV Charging Analysis Based on the National Travel Surveys of the Nordic Area', in Proc. 2014 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting, pp. 1-5.
  • I.Graabak, L.Warland, M. Nilsson, Q. Wu: Scenarios for a Carbon Neutral Nordic power system, submitted (after invitation) to Energies journal, Oct 2014, review received and responded to January 2015.
  • Liu, Zhaoxi ; Wu, Qiuwei ; Nielsen, Arne Hejde ; Wang, Yun: Day-Ahead Energy Planning with 100% Electric Vehicle Penetration in the Nordic Region by 2050 in journal: Energies (ISSN: 1996-1073) (DOI:, vol: 7, pages: 1733-1749, 2014
  • Nykvist and Nilsson 'Rapidly falling costs of battery packs for electric vehicles', Nature Climate Change, in press 2015

Other publications:

  • I. Graabak: NORSTRAT – dekarbonisering av Nordens kraft-, transport og varmesektor fram til 2050, Xergi nr 3 2012, ISSN 1500-371X

Project partners:

The project was coordinated by SINTEF Energy Research with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) as a partner. One PhD-study was involved at DTU.

Reference Group:

  • Energi Norge
  • Enova
  • Statnett
  • Fingrid
  • Svenska Kraftnet
  • Vattenfall
  • Fortum
  • Dansk Energi
  • Vestas
  • Dong Energy


NORSTRAT was part of the programme "Sustainable Energy System 2050" from Nordic Energy Research and lasts from 2011 to 2015.
Project funded by Nordic Energy Research


Key Factors

Project duration

2011 - 2015

Explore research areas