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TWENTIES - Transmitting wind

Hydropower flexibility & Grid restriction studies

Nordic hydro power generation flexibility and transmission capacity expansion to support North European wind power: 2020 and 2030 case studies.

This research presents the challenges related to wind power production variability, especially offshore, in the North Sea. Assessment on the transmission grid needed for both harvesting the available wind production located far away from load centres and to enable the optimal use of hydropower flexibility, is studied in a long-term cost-benefit analysis. Special focus is devoted to the role of an offshore grid structure and the impact of onshore grid constraints.

Potential for increased hydro production capacity in the Nordic Area input from CEDREN

Motivation: Vision & Strategic Outlook


Vision: A fully meshed grid will allow for optimized utilization of offshore wind resources and hydro power flexibility across the North Sea area

Offshore Grid Alternatives

The Impact of Internal Onshore Constraints (average annual exchange) on the best offshore alternative in terms of annual savings


  • The evaluated results clarify and quantify the impacts of Norwegian hydro flexibility and transmission grid expansion on the European power system
  • Onshore grid constraints strongly influence the flows across a meshed offshore grid, therefore affecting the optimal use of wind and hydro.
  • Long term strategies for the development of offshore grids and onshore grid expansion must be done in a coordinated way to ensure optimal developments.