# Utilization of batteries in the distribution grid

## Results:

- Economic evaluation of operation strategies for battery systems
- Grid battery cost model with degradation
- Incorporating energy storage and variable renewables in power flow analysis
- Methods for Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) of Battery Energy Storage in Power Grids
- Multimarket Services for Stationary Batteries - Considering Activation of Frequency Containment Normal Operation Reserves
- Optimal Operation of Battery Storage for a Subscribed Capacity-Based Power Tariff Prosumer
- Radial power flow with battery operation

**Flexible resources in the power system**

**CINELDI's Knowledge base**

*Battery storage systems can be utilized as flexible resources in the power system. Although many such systems are presently considered to be too expensive solutions in many cases, the prices are expected to drop. *

Thus, battery storage systems have been considered for many case studies in CINELDI [1]–[9]: optimization of battery system operation, as an alternative to grid reinforcement, for enhancing security of supply, cost-optimal operation in prosumer villas, considering battery degradation and optimal operation of such systems in large buildings, such as a football stadium, for example.

EV batteries can be used both as a flexible resource [10], [11], either for voltage support, demand shifting or as a power plant through Vehicle2Grid.

The BATTPOWER toolbox was also developed in collaboration with CINELDI [12]. It is a multi-period AC optimal power flow (OPF) solver which takes various flexible resources such as stationary energy storage systems and EV charging into account and aims to be highly computationally efficient compared with traditional OPF solvers [13].

## Selected publications from CINELDI:

- A. A. Seijas, P. C. del Granado, H. Farahmand, and J. Rueda, “Optimal battery systems designs for Distribution Grids: What size and location to invest in?,” in 2019 International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST), Sep. 2019, pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1109/SEST.2019.8849119.
- I. B. Sperstad and M. Korpås, “Energy Storage Scheduling in Distribution Systems Considering Wind and Photovoltaic Generation Uncertainties,” Energies, vol. 12, no. 7, Art. no. 7, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.3390/en12071231.
- F. Berglund, S. Zaferanlouei, M. Korpås, and K. Uhlen, “Optimal Operation of Battery Storage for a Subscribed Capacity-Based Power Tariff Prosumer—A Norwegian Case Study,” Energies, vol. 12, no. 23, p. 4450, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.3390/en12234450.
- I. B. Sperstad et al., “Cost-Benefit Analysis of Battery Energy Storage in Electric Power Grids: Research and Practices,” 2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe). pp. 314–318, 2020. doi: 10.1109/ISGT-Europe47291.2020.9248895.
- C. A. Andresen, H. Sæle, and M. Z. Degefa, “Sizing Electric Battery Storage System for Prosumer Villas,” in 2020 International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST), Sep. 2020, pp. 1–5. doi: 10.1109/SEST48500.2020.9203343.
- P. Aaslid, F. Geth, M. Korpås, M. M. Belsnes, and O. B. Fosso, “Non-linear charge-based battery storage optimization model with bi-variate cubic spline constraints,” Journal of Energy Storage, vol. 32, p. 101979, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.est.2020.101979.
- M. R. Brubæk and M. Korpås, “A Norwegian Case Study on Battery Storage as Alternative to Grid Reinforcement,” presented at the 2021 IEEE Madrid PowerTech, Jun. 2021. doi: 10.1109/PowerTech46648.2021.9495054.
- E. Haugen, K. Berg, B. N. Torsater, and M. Korpas, “Optimisation model with degradation for a battery energy storage system at an EV fast charging station,” in 2021 IEEE Madrid PowerTech, Madrid, Spain, Jun. 2021, pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1109/PowerTech46648.2021.9494979.
- K. Berg, M. Resch, T. Weniger, and S. Simonsen, “Economic evaluation of operation strategies for battery systems in football stadiums: A Norwegian case study,” Journal of Energy Storage, vol. 34, p. 102190, Feb. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.est.2020.102190.
- M. Marinelli et al., “Electric Vehicles Demonstration Projects - An Overview Across Europe,” in 2020 55th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), Sep. 2020, pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1109/UPEC49904.2020.9209862.
- I. Ilieva and B. Bremdal, “Implementing local flexibility markets and the uptake of electric vehicles – the case for Norway,” in 2020 6th IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCon), Sep. 2020, pp. 1047–1052. doi: 10.1109/ENERGYCon48941.2020.9236611.
- S. Zaferanlouei, H. Farahmand, V. V. Vadlamudi, and M. Korpås, “BATTPOWER Toolbox: Memory-Efficient and High-Performance Multi-Period AC Optimal Power Flow Solver,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 3921–3937, Sep. 2021, doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2021.3055429.
- S. Zaferanlouei, M. Korpås, J. Aghaei, H. Farahmand, and N. Hashemipour, “Computational Efficiency Assessment of Multi-Period AC Optimal Power Flow including Energy Storage Systems,” in 2018 International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and Technologies (SEST), Sep. 2018, pp. 1–6. doi: 10.1109/SEST.2018.8495683.