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Sisim - A 3D model for silicon crystallisation

Sisim is a model for silicon crystallization processes. It is the product of collaboration between SINTEF and the Institute of Energy Technology, and is being developed within the Norwegian FME Center for Solar Cell Research with support from the Norwegian Research Council and the Norwegian PV industry.

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About sisim

The goal of the Sisim work-package is:

  • To develop and deliver to the PV industry an integrated software package for the simulation of silicon crystallisation processes,
  • To address the most relevant crystallisation processes, including multi- and mono-crystalline ingots,
  • The generic character of the model makes it relevant also for other processes.

Sisim capabilities
Sisim is a transient FEM model for silicon crystallization processes. In the model, so called global furnace model can be build including all furnace components with the casting recipe as input. The model is intended for process development and optimization as well an R&D tool as new physics is implemented. The model can be further extended with specific features to meet customer needs.

Sisim includes several modules:

  • 2D and 3D capabilities
  • Heat transfer module including latent heat release, conduction, convection and radiation
  • Fluid and gas flow module including laminar and turbulent flow regimes, with the possibly of importing external forces such as electromagnetic Lorentz forces in the melt
  • Impurity transport module accounting for segregation, convective transport, diffusion, dissolution and evaporation phenomena
  • Mechanical module addressing thermally-induced stresses and deformations in the growing ingot accounting for thermo-elasto-visco-plastic deformation
  • Crystal plasticity framework for anisotropic and grain orientation dependent mechanical properties
  • Defect module being extended to address vacancies and interstitials in Cz-Si