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Design of a multi-user CO2 intermediate storage facility in the Grenland region of Norway


This paper describes a design and pre-feasibility study of a multi-user intermediate CO2 storage facility in the Grenland region of Norway, considering upstream and downstream issues. The study focuses on the principles for designing and installing a generic hub facility so that the results can be considered at other sites. The pre-feasibility study found that design pressures of 7 and 15 bar are feasible transport conditions; moreover, it showed that economies of scale might reduce the total cost for a CO2 network. It is recognised that cooperation across the chain is crucial in managing impurities due to the likely diverse sources of CO2. An intermediate storage facility can support the continuous supply of CO2 via a pipeline system for reservoir injection, improving the integrity of the injection well and equipment and the reservoir performance. A mixed-integer linear programming optimisation model has been developed for sizing and costing intermediate storage hubs of CO2 in Grenland and shipping connections between them and stationary emitters. The model considers an aggregated flow of 2 million tonnes per annum of CO2 for 30 years. The 7 bar design pressure has shown lower total costs when compared with the 15 bar scenario. This is due to the higher costs for shipping and intermediate storage when operating at higher pressure, which is larger than the cost reduction from liquefying CO2 to a higher pressure and higher temperature than those required for a 7 bar scenario. The estimated levelised costs were 21,6 € tonne−1 at 7 bar pressure and 27,8 € tonne−1 at 15 bar pressure.


Academic article




  • Denis Martins Fraga
  • Ragnhild Skagestad
  • Nils Henrik Eldrup
  • Anna Korre
  • Hans Aksel Haugen
  • Zhenggang Nie
  • Sevket Durucan


  • Imperial College London
  • SINTEF Industry / Process Technology



Published in

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control







View this publication at Cristin