Microplastic (MP) pollution is attracting growing global attention, but little is known about the factors influencing MP occurrence and distributions in marine sediments. Here, MPs were sampled from the sediments of two semi-enclosed bays (Jinghai Bay and Laizhou Bay) and two coastal open zones (Lancelet Reserve and Solen grandis Reserve) in China. The order of MP abundance was Jinghai Bay > Laizhou Bay > Lancelet Reserve > Solen grandis Reserve. Average MP diversity indices for Laizhou Bay (1.84 ± 0.18), Lancelet Reserve (1.59 ± 0.43), S. grandis Reserve (1.58 ± 0.89), and Jinghai Bay (1.43 ± 0.14) revealed Laizhou Bay had the most complicated MP sources. A significant negative correlation between MP abundance and sediment grain size occurred in the semi-enclosed coastal zones (p = 0.004, r = −0.618) rather than in the open coastal zones (p = 0.051, r = −0.480), indicating small sediment particles can strongly enhance MP accumulation in semi-enclosed costal sediments. Although anthropogenic activities influence the MP distribution at source, the composition of regional and local sediments might impact MP occurrence in semi-enclosed coastal zones from the sink. These results help to improve our understanding of the fate and inventory of MPs in coastal sediments.