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Establishment of a Validation and Benchmark Database for the Assessment of Ship Operation in Adverse Conditions


The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), introduced by the IMO [1] is applicable for various types of new-built ships since January 2013. Despite the release of an interim guideline [2], concerns regarding the sufficiency of propulsion power and steering devices to maintain manoeuvrability of ships in adverse conditions were raised. This was the motivation for the EU research project SHOPERA (Energy Efficient Safe SHip OPERAtion, 2013–2016 [3–6]). The aim of the project is the development of suitable methods, tools and guidelines to effectively address these concerns and to enable safe and green shipping. Within the framework of SHOPERA, a comprehensive test program consisting of more than 1,300 different model tests for three ship hulls of different geometry and hydrodynamic characteristics has been conducted by four of the leading European maritime experimental research institutes: MARINTEK, CEHIPAR, Flanders Hydraulics Research and Technische Universität Berlin. The hull types encompass two public domain designs, namely the KVLCC2 tanker (KRISO VLCC, developed by KRISO) and the DTC container ship (Duisburg Test Case, developed by Universität Duisburg-Essen) as well as a RoPax ferry design, which is a proprietary hull design of a member of the SHOPERA consortium. The tests have been distributed among the four research institutes to benefit from the unique possibilities of each facility and to gain added value by establishing data sets for the same hull model and test type at different under keel clearances (ukc). This publication presents the scope of the SHOPERA model test program for the two public domain hull models — the KVLCC2 and the DTC. The main particulars and loading conditions for the two vessels as well as the experimental setup is provided to support the interpretation of the examples of experimental data that are discussed. The focus lies on added resistance at moderate speed and drift force tests in high and steep regular head, following and oblique waves. These climates have been selected to check the applicability of numerical models in adverse wave conditions and to cover possible non-linear effects. The obtained test results with the KVLCC2 model in deep water at CEHIPAR are discussed and compared against the results obtained in shallow water at Flanders Hydraulics Research. The DTC model has been tested at MARINTEK in deep water and at Technische Universität Berlin and Flanders Hydraulics Research in intermediate/shallow water in different set-ups. Added resistance and drift force measurements from these facilities are discussed and compared. Examples of experimental data is also presented for manoeuvring in waves. At MARINTEK, turning circle and zig-zag tests have been performed with the DTC in regular waves. Parameters of variation are the initial heading, the wave period and height.


Academic chapter/article/Conference paper




  • Florian Sprenger
  • Vahid Hassani
  • Adolfo Maron
  • Guillaume Delefortrie
  • Thibaut Van Zwijnsvoorde
  • Andrés Cura-Hochbaum
  • Antonio Lengwinat


  • SINTEF Ocean / Skip og havkonstruksjoner
  • Spain
  • Belgium
  • Ghent University
  • Technical University Berlin




The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


ASME 2016 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering Volume 1: Offshore Technology; Offshore Geotechnics





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