C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in combination with multivariate data analysis was used to (1) discriminate between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), (2) discriminate between different geographical origins, and (3) verify the origin of market samples. Muscle lipids from 195 Atlantic salmon of known origin (wild and farmed salmon from Norway, Scotland, Canada, Iceland, Ireland, the Faroes, and Tasmania) in addition to market samples were analyzed by C-13 NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis. Both probabilistic neural networks (PNN) and support vector machines (SVM) provided excellent discrimination (98.5 and 100.0%, respectively) between wild and farmed salmon. Discrimination with respect to geographical origin was somewhat more difficult, with correct classification rates ranging from 82.2 to 99.3% by PNN and SVM, respectively. In the analysis of market samples, five fish labeled and purchased as wild salmon were classified as farmed salmon (indicating mislabeling), and there were also some discrepancies between the classification and the product declaration with regard to geographical origin.