A three-dimensional defect study was carried out on CaTi0.9Fe0.1O3−d ceramic membrane material as a model study for the use of computed tomography in both microstructural analysis and mechanical characterization. The study demonstrated many advantages over the commonly used fractographic study which is also presented in this paper. The data obtained by computed tomography were further used for mechanical modeling and prediction of material’s behavior based on finite element analysis, where the stress state was also analyzed by varying the defect’s position and the loading configuration. The results obtained by these techniques were validated by microstructural studies, mechanical experiments and fractographic analysis. The fracture strength of the tested material was determined and compared to other potential membrane materials.