The TORC training approach addresses three distinct training arenas; operational training addresses the exploration of the necessary margin of maneuver in the "compliance vs resilience" space, managerial training addresses the assessment of a reasonable and accountable space of maneuver, while integrated training addresses the active reconciliation of margin and space of maneuver. This facilitates a continual process of updating of rules based on the enhanced knowledge about the professional competence and craftsmanship in the organization at hand.
The TORC approach is designed to be applicable in different contexts; in a normal operation context where pre-existing rules and procedures form the expectations of compliance, in an emergency context in which emergency plans form the presumptions of compliance, and in a "managing the unexpected" context in which the applicable set of rules and procedures must be collected and formed instantly and situation-dependently.
The TORC project has chosen gaming as the key foundation for innovative training aiming for the objectives and targets described above. A board game has been developed and piloted. The TORC board game has shown to be an excellent sensitization device that supports and fuels operational, managerial and integrated training activities in terms of revelation of existing adaptive practices, exploration of hypothetical situations with close as well as more distant proximity to known practice, and joint reflections and after-action reviews, comprising both homogeneous and heterogeneous training groups.
The practical experiences from piloting the TORC board game in different industrial contexts have, co-creatively, opened new horizons and prospects of safety-relevant organizational training and knowledge development beyond the traditional confines of safety training and management. The practical experiences also confirm the underlying TORC presumptions on
- the pragmatic value and recognition of the "resilience in context of compliance" premise
- the urge for management to explicitly mandate a "space" of maneuver that legitimates a
professional and craftsmanship-based adaptive capacity hallmarking resilience. That is, a "shifting competence envelope" for which also the management side is accountable, that otherwise will have to continue to exist tacitly behind a "rational facade" of compliance, without being credited for its achievements, and with the risk of penalty for non-compliance when adaptations fail.
As a side effect, the TORC approach is a powerful tool to visualize risky conditions related to deviation from planned or prescribed operation.
Reports and papers:
- SINTEF Report A27034: Training for Operational Resilience Capabilities (TORC): 1st Concept Elaboration.
- SINTEF Report A27931: Guidelines for the preparatory work needed to implement a TORC training program.
- SINTEF report A28099: Training for Operational Resilience Capabilities (TORC): Summary of concept and experiences.
- Grøtan TO, Wærø I, van der Vorm JKJ van der, Beek FA van der, Zuiderwijk DC, Using gaming and resilience engineering principles to energize a situated resilience training of front-end operators and managers, Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Walls, Revie & Bedford (eds.), Paper at ESREL 2016, Glasgow, Scotland, ISBN 978-1-138-02997-2.
- TNO Report 2016 R11489, WP3: A report summarizing preparation and implementation of the TORC training modules (D3.1-D3.3).
- TNO Report 2016 R10988, D5.1: TORC Impact Assessment, Framework, Methodology and Validation Roadmap.
- Fostering resilience through changing realities. Introduction to operational resilience capabilities, TORC booklet.
- Presentations from the final TORC workshop at Strukton Rail, Utrecht, The Neterlands, December 2nd, 2016:
Demo TORC game TNO
TORC Symposium AdviSafe
TORC Symposium Bongers TNO
TORC Symposium De Boer
TORC Symposium Dedale
TORC Symposium Infraspeed
TORC Symposium NAM
TORC Symposium SINTEF
TORC Symposium Strukton Rail