About 75% of the total energy spent in PV module manufacturing is spent in processing primary raw silicon to wafers. The silicon raw material energy intensity is strongly related to its purity. Traditionally silicon material waste streams from the PV value chain, such as kerf, has a high purity and a high energy investment and it is desirable to reuse it as secondary raw material. Silica (crucibles) and graphite (furnace parts) are other high purity materials which should be viewed as secondary raw material or raw materials for other applications.
Closing material loops, refining, purifying and recycling need to be a part of the whole value chain.
Expertises in SINTEF
- Argon recycling
- Water recycling
- Silicon (broken cells, pot-scrap and kerf) recycling
- Used quartz crucible utilisation
- Used graphite furnace parts utilisation
- New applications for silicon, silica and graphite waste