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Effect of Whipping on Fatigue and Extreme Loading of a 13000TEU Container Vessel in Bow Quartering Seas Based on Model Tests (OMAE2011-49370)


Many large and ultra large container vessels have entered operation lately and more vessels will enter operation in the coming years. The operational experience is limited and one of the concerns is the additional effect of hull girder vibrations especially from whipping (bow impacts), but also from springing (resonance). Whipping contributes both to increased fatigue and extreme loading, while springing does mainly contribute to increased fatigue loading. MAIB recommended the industry to join forces to investigate the effect of whipping after MSC Napoli, a Post-Panamax container vessel, broke in two in January 2007. This has been followed up by a JIP initiated in 2008 with the following participants: HHI, DNV, BV, CeSOS and Marintek. In 2009 a new design 13000TEU vessel was tested in head seas and reported in [1]. The current paper deals with fatigue and extreme loading of the same vessel, but from realistic quartering sea conditions tested in 2010. Different headings and the effect of wave energy spreading have been investigated and compared to results from head seas. Further, the effect of the vibrations have been investigated on torsion and horizontal bending, as the model is also allowed to vibrate with realistic frequencies in other modes in addition to vertical bending. The findings suggest that changing the course is not effective to reduce the fatigue loading of critical fatigue sensitive details amidships. The effect of wave energy spreading did also not reduce the fatigue loading significantly. For the highest observed vertical bending moments in each sea state and for the three cross sections the wave energy spreading in average reduced the maxima, but for the highest sea state the effect of wave spreading did not consistently give reduced maxima. This is an important aspect when considering the available safety margin that may be reduced by whipping. The whipping gave also a considerable contribution to horizontal bending and torsion. This suggests that validation of numerical tools is urgent with respect to off head sea conditions and that these tools must incorporate the real structural behavior to confirm the importance of the response from torsional and horizontal as well as for vertical vibrations.


Academic chapter/article/Conference paper





  • Det Norske Veritas AS
  • France
  • South Korea
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • SINTEF Ocean / Skip og havkonstruksjoner




The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


30th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering (OMAE2011) - Vol. VI




293 - 302

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