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Resilience at Interfaces – Improvement of Safety and Security in Distributed Control Systems by Web of Influence


Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to support the implementation of safety and security guidelines in the Norwegian oil and gas industry and verify the actual use of the guidelines by industry and authorities.

Design/methodology/approach – An action research approach was used, exploring organisational learning as described by Argyris and Schon and by Nonaka and Takeuchi as “The knowledge-creating company.” Interviews (analysis of interviews), workshops and reviews of guidelines and audits were performed in addition to “learning workshops” trying to create understanding and compliance related to the guidelines among industry and authorities.

Findings – The guideline OLF104 is used in the Norwegian oil and gas industry, by operators and by suppliers and checked through audits. However, the guideline should influence working procedures at operators more. The guideline seems to have improved resilience.

Research limitations/implications – The impact of the guideline on safety and security should be more systematically assessed. It is suggested that improvement of experience and knowledge related to safety, security and resilience of distributed control systems could improve the guidelines.

Social implications – The paper shows that there is improved awareness, safety, security and resilience when process control systems are integrated with ICT systems.

Originality/value – The contribution of the paper is the exploration of a broad-based action-based approach, involving key stakeholders in a structured manner, to improve practices and facilitate implementation of safety and security guidelines. The contribution is also an empirical documentation of the implementation of key issues of security and safety in guidelines between two different areas of competence, ICT and process control. The paper will be of interest to the key stakeholders: the industry, authorities and the media.


Academic article





  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • SINTEF Industry / Sustainable Energy Technology



Published in

Information Management & Computer Security




Emerald Group Publishing Limited






71 - 87

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