The Tapovan Vishnugad hydropower project(4x130 MW) in the Himalayan region of India, has been used as a case study to compare the problems and costeffectivenessof a TBM or drill and blast excavation of the headrace tunnel and to assess the rock support measures for the powerhouse cavern. The NTH time and cost prognosis model indicated that the TBM would give a better weekly advance rate and unit excavation cost for the headrace tunnel. The Phase 2 finite element numerical modeling tool and the Hoek–Brown failure criterion were used to analyse the stresses and displacements likely to be experienced in the underground excavations. The rock support determined was compared with that indicated using the Q-method. The work has shown that numerical modeling can prove very useful in supplementing the results, provided the input parameters are accurate and take into account both direct measurements and judgment based on experience of the actual ground conditions.