To main content

Stochastic operation of energy constrained microgrids considering battery degradation


Power systems with high penetration of variable renewable generation are vulnerable to periods with low generation. An alternative to retain high dispatchable generation capacity is electric energy storage that enables utilization of surplus power, where the electric energy storage contributes to the security of supply. Such systems can be considered as energy-constrained, and the operation of the electric energy storage must balance the minimization of the current operating costs against the risk of not being able to meet the future demand. Safe and efficient operation requires stochastic methods with sufficient foresight. Operation dependent storage degradation is a complicating factor. This paper proposes a linear approximation of battery state-of-charge degradation and implements it in a stochastic dual dynamic programming based energy-management model in combination with cycling degradation. The long-term implications of degradation modeling in the daily operation are studied for a small Norwegian microgrid with variable renewable power generation and limited dispatchable generation capacity as well as battery and hydrogen storage to balance supply and demand. Our results show that the proposed strategy can prolong the expected battery lifetime by more than four years compared to the naive stochastic strategy but may cause increased degradation for other system resources. © 2022 The Authors
Read publication


Academic article


  • Research Council of Norway (RCN) / 257626
  • Research Council of Norway (RCN) / 272398





  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • SINTEF Energy Research / Energisystemer



Published in

Electric power systems research





View this publication at Cristin