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Optimal load management strategy for large electric vehicle charging stations with undersized charger clusters

Abstract

This study proposes a load management strategy for parking and charging facilities with the capacity to serve several hundreds of electric vehicles. The strategy is built upon two assumptions on power distribution systems of large charging stations: i) they are configured as clusters, each comprising a number of charging units for reduced cabling complexity, ii) the power delivery components (such as feeders and circuit breakers) of individual clusters are sized for load factors smaller than 100% to reduce the capital costs. Unless controlled, the load demand can concentrate into particular cluster(s) whereas other clusters can still tolerate additional demand. This may lead to avoidable load interruptions and, thus, reduced energy provision. To address this issue, a load management strategy that optimises the distribution of vehicles across the clusters and their charging profiles is proposed. The strategy is compared in simulation with a benchmark strategy in different commercial parking lot scenarios. The results demonstrate that the optimal management achieves identical demand fulfilment rates despite more pronounced load factor limitations as compared to the benchmark strategy. This can enable further reduction in system component sizing. In the tested scenarios, the proposed strategy leads to increased long term profits ranging between 12% and 43%.

Category

Academic article

Client

  • Research Council of Norway (RCN) / 284231

Language

English

Author(s)

Affiliation

  • Aachen University of Technology
  • SINTEF Energy Research / Energisystemer
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Date

09.10.2021

Year

2021

Published in

IET Electrical Systems in Transportation

ISSN

2042-9738

Publisher

John Wiley & Sons

Volume

12

Issue

1

Page(s)

49 - 64

View this publication at Cristin