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Review of aluminum alloy development for wire arc additive manufacturing

Abstract

Processing of aluminum alloys by wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) gained significant attention from industry and academia in the last decade. With the possibility to create large and relatively complex parts at low investment and operational expenses, WAAM is well suited for implementation in a range of industries. The process nature involves fusion melting of a feedstock wire by an electric arc where metal droplets are strategically deposited in a layer-by-layer fashion to create the final shape. The inherent fusion and solidification characteristics in WAAM are governing several aspects of the final material, herein process-related defects such as porosity and cracking, microstructure, properties, and performance. Coupled to all mentioned aspects is the alloy
composition, which at present is highly restricted for WAAM of aluminum but received considerable attention in later years. This review article describes common quality issues related to WAAM of aluminum, i.e., porosity, residual stresses, and cracking. Measures to combat these challenges are further outlined, with special attention to the alloy composition. The state-of-the-art of aluminum
alloy selection and measures to further enhance the performance of aluminum WAAM materials are presented. Strategies for further development of new alloys are discussed, with attention on the importance of reducing crack susceptibility and grain refinement.

Category

Academic literature review

Client

  • Research Council of Norway (RCN) / 309584

Language

English

Author(s)

Affiliation

  • SINTEF Industry / Materials and Nanotechnology
  • Norsk Hydro ASA
  • Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Date

17.09.2021

Year

2021

Published in

Materials

ISSN

1996-1944

Publisher

MDPI

Volume

14

Issue

18

Page(s)

1 - 26

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