Oil-related aggregates (ORAs) may contribute to the fate of oil spilled offshore. However, our understanding about the impact of diatoms and associated bacteria involved in the formation of ORAs and the fate of oil compounds in these aggregates is still limited. We investigated these processes in microcosm experiments with defined oil dispersions in seawater at 5 °C, employing the Arctic diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus and its associated bacterial assemblage to promote ORA formation. Accumulation of oil compounds, as well as biodegradation of naphthalenes in ORAs and corresponding water phases, was enhanced in the presence of diatoms. Interestingly, the genus Nonlabens was predominating the bacterial communities in diatom-supplemented microcosms, while this genus was not abundant in other samples. This work elucidates the relevance of diatom biomass for the formation of ORAs, microbial community structures and biodegradation processes in chemically dispersed oil at low temperatures relevant for Arctic conditions.