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Estimation of Wave Loads due to Green Water Events in 10000-Year Conditions on a TLP Deck Structure


In order to provide qualitative and quantitative information on the hydrodynamics loads during green water events on a module on the deck of a TLP in 10000-year conditions, MARINTEK has carried out CFD simulations. This paper presents extreme wave events and corresponding hydrodynamics loads on the module which can be directly linked to the extreme events observed in model tests. This means that the simulated extreme events can be related to a probability of occurrence, found from the model test.

A prerequisite for the structural design is that reliable estimates of hydrodynamic loads during a green water event can be made. Measured time series of waves from existing model test data are compared with CFD generated synthetic numerical waves. The selection of steep wave events are based on two physical parameters: the wave crest height and the rise velocity (time derivative of the free surface elevation at a given location). These parameters are relevant for green water and corresponding loads. The comparison of the measured free surface elevation of the calibrated waves with the time series of the numerical waves, as well as the measured and simulated relative wave probes time series shows that the applied numerical wave events have similar physical conditions as those observed in the model test.

In a new procedure developed by MARINTEK one identifies observed steep wave events, which are similar to existing numerical wave events, instead of trying to reproduce measured events. This procedure reduces the computational time, as well as computational costs, to an industrially acceptable level.

Traditional load estimation is not able to provide such reliable detailed local load history for structural design purpose at areas exposed to wave impacts. Therefore, topside modules are currently not installed in such areas. This new procedure, where CFD simulates realistic breaking waves with coupling to structural analysis tools, offers new possibilities for the design of structures subject to risk of green water loading.


Academic chapter/article/Conference paper





  • SINTEF Ocean / Skip og havkonstruksjoner
  • SINTEF Ocean / Energi og transport
  • Equinor
  • Haugesund




The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


ASME 2016 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering Volume 1: Offshore Technology; Offshore Geotechnics





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