Dust, or airborne particulate matter, from metal smelting can be either mechanically or thermally generated and it negatively affects the indoor air quality as well as the fugitive emissions from the plant. The thermally generated dust is often referred to as fume and it is typically generated whenever liquid metal comes into contact with air. For practical reasons, such as vehicle access, etc. it is often difficult to collect 100% of the fume. It is therefore highly desirable to develop processes and optimize operational procedures so that fuming can be kept to a minimum. In this series of experiments, the mechanism of active oxidation and fume formation from liquid silicomanganese under an impinging air jet in the temperature range 1400-1600°C has been explored. Characteristic properties of the fume have been established; particle diameter, shape, size distribution, and elemental composition are reported. The oxidation process is described in terms of vaporization, oxidation and agglomeration. In the boundary layer, two competing mechanisms seem to be operative in parallel: a direct oxidation of Mn vapor, and a two-step oxidation of silicon. The thermodynamic and kinetic conditions governing the two mechanisms are discussed.