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Reduction of emissions from ferroalloy furnaces


The Norwegian ferroalloy industry has high ambitions regarding environmental standards. Basic research work has been performed to improve the fundamental understanding of ferroalloy processes and the environmental aspects. This paper will present work dealing with the understanding of formation and control of NOx, PAH and dioxins. During this work various techniques and methods have been applied, such as comprehensive industrial measurements, laboratory experiments, model development and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The main goal has been to reduce the environmental impact of ferroalloy plants, by means of improving the combustion processes done by introducing new charging routines and optimized furnace operations, instead of installing expensive gas treatment systems. The Norwegian obligations in accordance with the Gothenburg protocol are to reduce the NOx emissions by 30%, compared with the 1990 level within 2010. Measures developed in this work have resulted in 40-60% reduction in NOx emission, and major reductions in PAH and dioxins for ferrosilicon and silicon metal plants. This has been achieved by introducing semi continuous charging and improved furnace operations. Semi continuous charging and optimized furnace operations are shown to reduce the blowing activity (i.e. emission of large quantity of SiO over the charge by direct channelling from the crater zone). It also reduces variation in off-gas temperature and dust production. To understand the processes and to achieve our results we have used online equipment, with fast sample rates and response times, to measure the off-gas compositions and temperatures. Most of the measuring techniques used are based upon optical principles making use of the absorption- and emission spectrum of the gases. In addition a new prototype instrument is developed for continuous measurement of off-gas characteristics, total dust amount and off-gas temperature. The presented work is a result of a long ter


Academic chapter/article/Conference paper





  • SINTEF Industry / Process Technology






INFACON XI: Innovations in the Ferro Ally Industry, Volum 1




479 - 488

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