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Global environmental and economic benefits of introducing R-744 mobile air conditioning


Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) of mobile air-conditioning (MAC) systems was estimated for different global locations, including parts of Asia where the car market is growing very fast. Furthermore, A/C systems in these markets must be considered as a key feature to improve drivers' comfort and safety. An LCCP calculation tool was applied. All input data used are documented. Test data have reconfirmed that the COP is no argument against R-744 in MACs. Fuel use of R-744 systems was significantly lower than with HFC-134a with respect to the selected reference, even in the warm climates considered in the present comparison. Another benefit of R-744 is the potential for compact system design and the good properties R-744 offers for using the system as a heat pump for supplementary heating in vehicles of the future. The estimated annual fuel saving potential and reduction of GHG emissions per 1 000 000 cars by introducing R-744 MAC systems instead of continuing with HFC-134a units in Shanghai 18 000 m3 of petrol and 172 000 tonnes of GHG emissions R-744 systems represent the sustainable alternative for mobile AC systems along the regulatory steps under Kyoto Protocol as initiated in EU. R-744 can be proposed as the global MAC refrigerant for the future with the highest confidence regarding safety, fuel efficiency, flexibility regarding future developments (heat pumping units) and system improvement potential (expander, ejector, etc.).


Academic chapter/article/Conference paper





  • SINTEF Energy Research / Gassteknologi
  • SINTEF Energy Research




International Institute of Refrigeration


Proceedings : 22nd International Congress of Refrigeration : Refrigeration creates the future



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