To main content

CMOS-Integrated Si/SiGe Quantum-Well Infrared Microbolometer Focal Plane Arrays Manufactured With Very Large-Scale Heterogeneous 3-D Integration

Abstract

We demonstrate infrared focal plane arrays utilizing monocrystalline silicon/silicon-germanium (Si/SiGe) quantum-well microbolometers that are heterogeneously integrated on top of CMOS-based electronic read-out integrated circuit substrates. The microbolometers are designed to detect light in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 μm and are arranged in focal plane arrays consisting of 384 × 288 microbolometer pixels with a pixel pitch of 25 μm × 25 μm. Focal plane arrays with two different microbolometer designs have been implemented. The first is a conventional single-layer microbolometer design and the second is an umbrella design in which the microbolometer legs are placed underneath the microbolometer membrane to achieve an improved pixel fill-factor. The infrared focal plane arrays are vacuum packaged using a CMOS compatible wafer bonding and sealing process. The demonstrated heterogeneous 3-D integration and packaging processes are implemented at wafer-level and enable independent optimization of the CMOS-based integrated circuits and the microbolometer materials. All manufacturing is done using standard semiconductor and MEMS processes, thus offering a generic approach for integrating CMOS-electronics with complex miniaturized transducer elements.

Category

Academic article

Client

  • EU / EU-FP7- e-Brains
  • Research Council of Norway (RCN) / 277879
  • EU / EU-FP7-ICU
  • EU / EU-FP7- E-BRAINS

Language

English

Author(s)

  • Fredrik Forsberg
  • Adriana Lapadatu
  • Gjermund Kittilsland
  • Stian Martinsen
  • Niclas Roxhed
  • Andreas C. Fischer
  • Göran Stemme
  • Björn Samel
  • Per Ericsson
  • Nils Hoivik
  • Thor Bakke
  • Martin Bring
  • Terje Kvisterøy
  • Audun Rør
  • Frank Niklaus

Affiliation

  • Royal Institute of Technology
  • SensoNor ASA
  • ACREO AB
  • University of South-Eastern Norway
  • SINTEF Digital / Microsystems and Nanotechnology

Year

2015

Published in

IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

ISSN

1077-260X

Publisher

IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society

Volume

21

Issue

4

View this publication at Cristin