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Testbeam and laboratory characterization of CMS 3D pixel sensors


The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected at the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements of CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations from different vendors. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties of silicon sensors, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.


Academic article




  • Mayur Bubna
  • Daniela Bortoletto
  • Enver Alagöz
  • Alex Krzywda
  • Kirk Thomas Arndt
  • Ian P.J. Shipsey
  • Gino Bolla
  • Nicholas A. Hinton
  • Angela Kok
  • Thor-Erik Hansen
  • Anand Summanwar
  • Jean Marie Brom
  • Maurizio Boscardin
  • John Chramowicz
  • John P. Cumalat
  • Gian-Franco Dalla Betta
  • Mauro E. Dinardo
  • Andrew P. Godshalk
  • Matthew Jones
  • Michael David Krohn
  • Akash Kumar
  • Chengmin Lei
  • Roberto Mendicino
  • Luigi Andrea Moroni
  • Lalith P. Perera
  • Marco Povoli
  • Alan P. Prosser
  • Ryan Rivera
  • Ada Solano
  • Margherita Margherita Obertino
  • Simon Kwan
  • Lorenzo Uplegger
  • Luigi Vigani
  • Stephen Robert Wagner


  • Purdue University
  • SINTEF Digital / Smart Sensors and Microsystems
  • France
  • Fondazione Bruno Kessler
  • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
  • University of Colorado at Boulder
  • University of Trento
  • National Institute of Nuclear Physics
  • University of Milan-Bicocca
  • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
  • University of Mississippi



Published in

Journal of Instrumentation (JINST)




IOP Publishing





View this publication at Cristin