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Systematic characterization of key parameters of hermetic wafer-level Cu-Sn SLID bonding


Hermetic wafer-level encapsulation of atmosphere sensitive Micro-Electric-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices is vital to achieve a high yield, a high performance and a long operating lifetime. An interesting and gradually more employed packaging technique is flux-less wafer-level copper-tin (Cu-Sn) solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding. The process is being employed for several next generation high performance infrared bolometers. The hermeticity and the reliability of the bond are studied through the key parameters: probability for void percolation, conversion into intermetallic compounds and residual stress using both characterization and modelling. Characterization using Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and optical microscopy showed different defects in the Cu-Sn bond in case of non-optimized process settings. Defects observed are incomplete conversion into the targeted intermetallic Cu3Sn and voiding. Incomplete conversion influences the thermo-mechanical and environmental robustness of the bond negatively due to less favourable material properties of the intermediately formed Cu6Sn5 in comparison to the targeted Cu3Sn. Voiding may result in lower thermo-mechanical robustness of the bond and loss of hermeticity. The probability for percolation through voiding is calculated. The reliability of the Cu-Sn bond is also studied using a Finite Element Model (FEM). The calculated residual stress in the Cu-Sn bond caused by volumetric shrinkage during formation of the IMCs is significant and should be taken into account during design to avoid a negative influence on the reliability of the bond.


Academic chapter/article/Conference paper




  • H. J. van de Wiel
  • Astrid-Sofie Vardøy
  • G. Hayes
  • M.H.M. Kouters
  • Adri van der Waal
  • M. Erinc
  • Adriana Lapadatu
  • Stian Martinsen
  • Maaike Margrete Visser Taklo
  • H.R. Fischer


  • Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research
  • SINTEF Digital / Smart Sensors and Microsystems
  • SensoNor ASA




IEEE conference proceedings


19th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference, EMPC 2013, Grenoble; France; 9 September 2013 through 12 September 2013



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