capacity of about 329Mta and production of 225 million ton per annum and approximately
181 kilns. While 25 cement plants are currently co-processing wastes in India, the total
substitution rate is still less than one per cent. 31 waste categories have been tested and were
granted permission by the CPCB to be used for co-processing in the cement industry.
In February 2010, India's Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) released guidelines for the
co-processing of hazardous waste in cement plants. According to the guidelines, a cement
plant considering co-processing must submit an application for a test burn to the State
Pollution Control Board. The SPCB grants test burn permission within 60 days of receipt of
the application. The cement plant must then also inform the CPCB about the test burn at least
15 days in advance so the latter can monitor the trial run. The test lasts five days starting with
a baseline test (with no waste feeding), followed by three days with waste and, finally, on the
last day another baseline test is carried out. The test burns are usually conducted with the
CPCB, SPCB and a third-party consultant.
The following main categories of hazardous wastes have been tested and permitted by the
CPCB: paint sludge from the automobile sector; petroleum refining sludge; tar from the
production of toluene diiso-cyanate; and effluent treatment plant sludge. Plastic wastes and tyre chips, which are classes as non-hazardous wastes, have also been permitted but the TSR is still less than one per cent. A large untapped potential for fuel substitution seems to be MSW and the possible production of RDF.