Bacillus methanolicus wild-type strain MGA3 secretes 59 g/liter−1 of l-glutamate in fed-batch methanol cultivations at 50°C. We recently sequenced the MGA3 genome, and we here characterize key enzymes involved in l-glutamate synthesis and degradation. One glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) that is encoded by yweB and two glutamate synthases (GOGATs) that are encoded by the gltAB operon and by gltA2 were found, in contrast to Bacillus subtilis, which has two different GDHs and only one GOGAT. B. methanolicus has a glutamine synthetase (GS) that is encoded by glnA and a 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) that is encoded by the odhAB operon. The yweB, gltA, gltB, and gltA2 gene products were purified and characterized biochemically in vitro. YweB has a low Km value for ammonium (10 mM) and a high Km value for l-glutamate (250 mM), and the Vmax value is 7-fold higher for l-glutamate synthesis than for the degradation reaction. GltA and GltA2 displayed similar Km values (1 to 1.4 mM) and Vmax values (4 U/mg) for both l-glutamate and 2-oxoglutarate as the substrates, and GltB had no effect on the catalytic activities of these enzymes in vitro. Complementation assays indicated that GltA and not GltA2 is dependent on GltB for GOGAT activity in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of two active GOGATs in a bacterium. In vivo experiments indicated that OGDH activity and, to some degree, GOGAT activity play important roles in regulating l-glutamate production in this organism.