Instrumental facilities we use for battery materials development are:
- X-ray powder diffraction: Crystalline structure and phase analysis, with in-situ capabilities to perform measurements as a function of temperature and atmosphere, and operando capabilities to track materials' evolution during battery cycling.
- X-ray micro CT: Non-destructive 3D Imaging of devices up to 50 kg in size to provide quality control and perform failure analysis at device-scale, and the translation of physical structure to digital 3D models. Through the use of custom operando test cells, physical processes occurring at the micron scale can be tracked.
- Electron Microscopy: Imaging of materials from the micron- to the atomic- scale using scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM/TEM) to determine morphology, physical and crystal structure, with quantitative spatial analysis chemical components via combination with element analysis systems (EDS and EELS). For fully accurate and representative cross-sectional analysis, SEM is combined with Focussed Ion Beam Milling (FIB-SEM).
- NMR: Both liquid and solid state NMR to probe molecular structure and dynamics in polymers and solids. Solid state NMR is particularly valuable in investigating and quantifying transport dynamics in solid state electrolytes.
- Thermal analysis: Thermogravimetric Analysers (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysers (DTA), Differential Thermal Calorimeters (DSC), and Dilatometers (optical and mechanical) are used to assess and quantify the physical and chemical behaviour of materials under non-ambient temperatures and atmospheres.
- FTIR/Raman: Vibrational spectroscopies used to identify and probe the molecular structure and chemical interactions within materials. In combination with sample translation, spatial mapping can also be performed.
In addition to these core analysis techniques, SINTEF also utilises a number of porosity and density measurement techniques (Hg intrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption, He-pycnometry), particle size analysis (Dynamic Light Scattering), and high sensitivity compositional analysis methods (ICP-MS, ICP-OES, GD-MS, GD-OES).