MRST - MATLAB Reservoir Simulation Toolbox

Analysis of Public Data Sets
Analysis of realistic data sets is an important part of research on CCS. However, getting hold of good and representative data in a format that can be used for simulation studies may be a both time-consuming and frustrating process. To enable other researchers to benefit from our work, we have offer functionality that will simplify the access to a series of data sets that are publicly available, including in particular, data from the CO2 Storage Atlas of the Norwegian North Sea.  That is, MRST-co2lab offers scripts that can be used to download, unpack, and convert the raw data into grids usable for visualization, capacity estimation, and simulation of CO2injection.

This part of the module seeks to import and process various datasets that are accessible to the public and relevant for study and research related to CO2 storage.

 

Sleipner injection

Sleipner is a comercial CO2 storage site in the North Sea, where CO2 has been injected since 1996. In this example, we simulate the CO2 migration in the top layer, using data that can be downloaded from ieaghg.org. The example uses C-accelerated versions of three central routines: processing of input data, computation of grid geometry, and solution of the transport step.
 

The Johansen formation

We use the vertical equilibrium model to simulate injection and subsequent migration of CO2 for the Johansen formation, a candidate site for large-scale CO2 storage offshore the south-west coast of Norway.
 

Show CO2 Storage Atlas data

The CO2 Storage Atlas produced by the petroleum directorate contains several topological maps of potential storage sites. We show how simulation grids are created from the raw datasets and the resulting placement in the Norwegian North Sea. The module also contains examples of how to create simulation models based upon the datasets in the atlas.
 

Migration from Sleipner to Utsira

The Sleipner field has been a site for CO2 injection for several years. To see the truly long term migration of the CO2, we use position of the Sleipner site as an injection point in the much larger Utsira formation and simulate migration over a period of 5000 years.

 

 

Utsira Formation: Optimized, large-scale injection scenario

We use tools based on the functionality of the CO2 laboratory and other MRST modules to decide on optimal well placements and injection rates in a large-scale COstorage scenario into the Utsira Formation.  After 50 years of injection, we simulate 3000 years of migration and continuously track the status of the injected CO2.

 

   Map of reachable structural capacity, Utsira

Utsira Formation: detailed storage capacity estimate

We use tools based on the functionality of the CO2 laboratory and other MRST modules to estimate theoretical trapping capacity of the Utsira formation.

 

Matching storage capacity estimates of structural traps located in the Hammerfest Aquifer Basin, Barents Sea

We use MRST-co2lab's spill-point analysis tool to identify the structural traps in the top formation of the Hammerfest Basin. We then compare these identified traps to the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate's (NPD) storage capacity estimates, which are reported in their CO2 Storage Atlas of the Barents Sea. 

   

Breakdown of CO2 storage capacity of formations in the Norwegian Continental Shelf

Using the formation datasets provided by NPD's CO2 Storage Atlas, we calculate the theoretical storage capacity of 23 of the formations, in terms of structural, residual, and dissolution trapping.

 
 

Optimization based on minimizing leakage and excess pressure buildup

In formations with very large trapping capacities, injection rates are likely to be limited due to pressure buildup. We use the Bjarmeland formation to demonstrate the importance of optimizing the injection rates, subject to maintaining the formation pressure under a predefined limit.

   

Categorizing CO2 Storage Potentials

Optimized injection strategies are obtained for three example formations. The storage potentials of these formations are then categorized based on whether the storage was limited by leakage, pressure buildup, or a mixture of both.

 

Literature

The following papers all show examples in which functionality from MRST-co2lab has been used to analyse public data sets:

  1. R. Allen, H. M. Nilsen, O. Andersen, K.-A. Lie. Categorization of Norwegian Continental Shelf formations in terms of geological CO2 storage potentials*. GHGT-13, 14-18 November 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland.  (* revised version in which we have corrected inaccuracies in the calculation of overburden pressure that determine the optimal injection strategies and whether an aquifer is constrained by leakage or pressure buildup)
  2. H. M. Nilsen, S. Krogstad, O. Andersen, R. Allen, K.-A. Lie. Using sensitivities and vertical-equilibrium models for parameter estimation of CO2 injection models with application to the Sleipner injection to measured data. GHGT-13, 14-18 November 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland.
  3. R. Allen, H. M. Nilsen, O. Andersen, and K.-A. Lie. On obtaining optimal well rates and placement for CO2 storage. ECMOR XV, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 29 Aug-1 Sept, 2016. DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201601823
  4. H. M. Nilsen, K.-A. Lie, O. Møyner, and O. Andersen. Spill-point analysis and structural trapping capacity in saline aquifers using MRST-co2lab. Computers & Geosciences, Vol. 75, pp. 33-43, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.cageo.2014.11.002.
  5. H. M. Nilsen, K.-A. Lie, and O. Andersen. Analysis of CO2 trapping capacities and long-term migration for geological formations in the Norwegian North Sea using MRST-co2lab. Computers & Geosciences, Vol. 79, pp. 15-26, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.cageo.2015.03.001
  6. K.-A. Lie, H. M. Nilsen, O. Andersen, and O. Møyner. A simulation workflow for large-scale CO2 storage in the Norwegian North Sea. ECMOR XIV, Catania, Sicily, Italy, 8-11 September 2014. DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.20141877
  7. K.-A. Lie, H. M. Nilsen, O. Andersen, O. Møyner.  A simulation workflow for large-scale CO2 storage in the Norwegian North Sea.  Computational Geosciences. 2015. DOI: 10.1007/s10596-015-9487-6
  8. O. Andersen, H. M. Nilsen, and K.-A. Lie. Reexamining CO2 storage capacity and utilization of the Utsira Formation. ECMOR XIV, Catania, Sicily, Italy, 8-11 September 2014. DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.20141877
  9. H. M. Nilsen, A. R. Syversveen, K.-A. Lie, J. Tveranger, and J. M. Nordbotten. Impact of top-surface morphology on CO2 storage capacity. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol. 11, pp. 221-235, 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2012.08.012
  10. H. M Nilsen, P. A. Hererra, M. Ashraf, I. Ligaarden, M. Iding, C. Hermanrud K.-A. Lie, J. M. Nordbotten, H. K. Dahle, and E. Keilegavlen, Field-case simulation of CO2 -plume migration using vertical-equilibrium models. Energy Procedia 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.315.

 

Links to public data sets

In particular, MRST-co2lab offers simple access to the following data sets

  1. CO2 Storage Atlas: Norwegian North Sea:  depth and thickness maps for fourteen formations from the Norwegian North Sea. The data are released by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and given in a GIS formate.
  2. IGEMS: Impact of realistic geologic models on simulation of CO2 storage: multiple realizations of the top-surface topography for a large-scale aquifer. Fifteen different model types are obtained by combining three stratigraphic and five structural scenarios.
  3. The Johansen Formation: four sector models and a full-field model of the Johansen aquifer developed by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and researchers from the MatMoRA project

Published July 2, 2014