Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) represents a possible cost-effective tertiary oil recovery method. Although the idea of MEOR has been around for more than 75 years, even now little is known of the mechanisms involved. In this study, Draugen and Ekofisk enrichment cultures, along with Pseudomonas spp. were utilized to study the selected MEOR mechanisms. Substrates which could potentially stimulate the microorganisms were examined, and l-fructose, d-galacturonic acid, turnose, pyruvic acid and pyruvic acid methyl ester were found to be the best utilized by the Ekofisk fermentative enrichment culture. Modelling results indicated that a mechanism likely to be important for enhanced oil recovery is biofilm formation, as it required a lower in situ cell concentration compared with some of the other MEOR mechanisms. The bacterial cells themselves were found to play an important role in the formation of emulsions. Bulk coreflood and flow cell experiments were performed to examine MEOR mechanisms, and microbial growth was found to lead to possible alterations in wettability. This was observed as a change in wettability from oil wet (contact angle 154°) to water wet (0°) due to the formation of biofilms on the polycarbonate coupons.