insulated flowlines as an alternative to direct electrical heating or
chemicals. Heat trace cables are attractive for their simple and flexible
design and that they can be retrofitted. Case studies of a 14" flowline,
where trace heat cables are placed outside the coating, indicate that fluid
temperatures can be maintained at 25-55 °C. Heating capability depend
on flowline geometry, heating cable type and burial depth. Commercial
heat trace cables are available for flowline lengths including at least
50 km. Heat trace cables with conventional electrical insulation can
deliver power in the 100 kW/km range.
KEY WORDS: Hydrate management; flow assurance; electrical
heating; flowlines, trace heating; direct electrical heating.