from the unit by tapping at regular intervals. Intermixing of the two phases may occur
during the latter stages of the tapping process, and if not carefully managed, it can
result in significant alloy being lost to the waste slag by entrainment. This paper
presents the results of a computational fluid dynamics study of the multiphase free
surface fluid flow in tapping ladles, with a specific focus on the impact of various
design and operational parameters on alloy losses to the slag.