Twenty-three new derivatives of the heptaene nystatin analogue 28,29-didehydronystatin A(1) (1) (S44HP) were obtained by chemical modification of C16 carboxyl and amino groups of mycosamine. These derivatives comprised 15 carboxamides, 4 N-alkyl derivatives, 3 N-derivatives containing additional N-linked monosaccharide or disaccharide moiety (products of Amadori rearrangement), and 1 N-aminoacyl derivative. The derivatives have been tested in vitro against yeasts Candida albicans, Cryptococcus humicolus, and filamentous fungi (molds) Aspergillus niger and Fusarum oxysporum, as well as for hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Structure-activity relationships for the compounds obtained are discussed. The most active and least hemolytic derivative 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propylamide of S44HP (6) was tested for acute toxicity and antifungal activity in animal model. Whereas amphotericin B and S44HP were active in vivo at doses close to the maximal tolerated dose, 6 was considerably less toxic and more active compared to these two antibiotics.