In this paper, an extendedMaxwell-Hellawell numerical grain size prediction model is employed to predictas-cast grain size of inoculated aluminum alloys. Given melt composition,inoculation and cooling conditions, the model is able to predict maximumnucleation undercooling, cooling curve and final as-cast grain size of multi-componentalloys. The proposed model has been applied to various binary andmulticomponent alloys. Upon analyzing the numerical simulation results, it isfound that for both binary and multi-component alloys, grain size does not havea one-to-one relation with Growth Restriction Factor, Q, but has a clear ubiquitous correlation with the average diffusivity-weightedQ, defined as W in this paper. This founding helps solve the controversy seen inthe recent work on analytical grain size and Q relations. It also has been used to interpret the scatters seenin the measured grain sizes as a function of Q values reported in the literature.