In this report the atmospheric and near-ground effects on aircraft wake vortices are discussed. However, the treatment of this topic will not be complete. The report is only intended to be an introduction to the problem of modeling the behavior of aircraft wakes, influenced by the atmosphere and proximity to the ground. Also, the large amount of research being conducted in this area at the present time, continuously adds new information and knowledge. The author hope that, in spite of the rapid advances that are being made in our understanding of aircraft wake vortices at the moment, this report will prove useful to engineers and scientist seeking an introduction to this rather fascinating subject.