Function runBravo.m
Tutorial main page runBravo.m solvefi.m flash_calculation.m setupSystem.m setupControls.m equationCompositional.m
setupGeometry.m computeComposition.m computeWaterComp.m getHenryCoef.m getR.m initStateBravo.m omega_l.m quadraticRelPerm.m
setNonlinearSolverParameters.m vaporPressure.m

The main state variables are

  • the pressure (state.p),
  • the total concentrations of each component He, Ne and CO2 (state.C)

We assume that thermodynamical equilibrium is reached instantaneously. Hence, from the main state variables, we can obtain the other state variables (saturation, concentrations in gas and liquid phases) by solving the flash equations, see Bravo tutorial note.

The flash equation can be reduced to a scalar equation in the liquid saturation variable. Thus, for the implementation convenience, we add

  • the liquid saturation (state.s)

to the main variable.

Initial MRST setup. Setup mrst installation directory

startup_dir = 'path-to-my-mrst-directory/mrst-2014a';
run(fullfile(startup_dir, 'mrst-core', 'startup.m'));

Load automatic differentiation module.

mrstModule add ad-fi

Simulation parameters We store simulation parameters in a structure param

Injection parameter

param.influx_C  = [10; 0; 90]/100;
param.influx_p  = 13e6; % for flash calculation, to compute influx water if inoutflux_unit='percent'.
param.influx_rate = 1000/day; % in m^3/s

Production parameters. In this case only the pressure is in fact needed

param.outflux_C = [0; 0.25; 0; 99.75]/100; % Should not be used if upwinding occurs for all
                                           % components.
param.outflux_p = 8e6;

param.Temp = 30 + 273.15; % Temperature (in Kelvin)

param.C_initial = [0, 0.5, 0, 99.5]/100;  % initial concentrations (He, Ne, CO2, H20)
                                          % in percent

Time-step parameters

param.dt = 200*day;             % Time step
param.total_time = 100000*day;  % Total time

Parameters for the non-linear solver

param.maxIterations = 50;

Parameters to save data.

param.do_save = false;
param.output_dir = 'output'; % directory where state variables are saved.

Load grid and rock parameters create variable G and rock


Plot porosity and permeability

figure(1); clf; plotCellData(G, rock.poro, 'facealpha', 0.5); title('Porosity');
plotGrid(G, 'facealpha', 0, 'edgealpha', 0.1); colorbar; view([73, 38]);
saveas(gcf, 'porosity.png');
figure(2); clf; plotCellData(G, rock.perm); title('Permeability');
plotGrid(G, 'facealpha', 0, 'edgealpha', 0.1); colorbar; view([73, 38]);
saveas(gcf, 'permeability.png');

Setup fluid properties

We consider a quadratic relative permeability curve.

fluid.relPerm = @(sL) quadraticRelPerm(sL);

The following molar mass values are taken from Wikipedia

mmH  = 1.00794*gram;  % molar mass of Hydrogen
mmO  = 15.9994*gram;  % molar mass of Oxygen
mmC  = 12.0107*gram;  % molar mass of Carbon
mmHe = 4.0026*gram;   % molar mass of Helium
mmNe = 20.1797*gram;  % molar mass of Neon

fluid.mmW = 2*mmH + mmO;  % molar mass of H20
fluid.mmC = [mmHe; mmNe; mmC + 2*mmO]; % molar masses of He, Ne amd CO2

Fluid viscosity for the liquid and gas

fluid.muL = 1e-3;  % Liquid
fluid.muG = 1e-5;  % Gas

Compressibility coefficient for the liquid phase with a reference pressure. We assume that the compressibility is independent on the composition    = 4.4e-5/atm; % Compressibility
fluid.p_ref = 1*atm;      % Reference pressure

Compute molar volume at standard condition (for pure water)

litre = 1e-3*meter^3;
rho = 1*kilogram/litre; = fluid.mmW/rho;

We can include gravity.

gravity = false;

bc = setupControls(G, fluid, param);

Set system variables

system.G         = G;
system.fluid     = fluid;
system.nComp     = 3; % 3 components (He, Ne, CO2)
system.s         = setupSystem(G, rock, bc, param);
system.cellwise  = 1:5; % Used in function getResiduals which checks convergence.

We have collected the parameter for the nonlinear solvers in the function setNonlinearSolverParameters

system.nonlinear = setNonlinearSolverParameters(param);
system.podbasis  = [];

system.R         = getR();
system.k         = getHenryCoef();
system.Temp      = param.Temp;
system.vp        = vaporPressure(system.Temp);

Setup the initial state.

state0 = initStateBravo(G, system, param);

total_time = param.total_time;
dt         = param.dt;
steps      = dt*ones(floor(total_time/dt), 1);
t          = cumsum(steps);

Time step iterations.

for tstep = 1 : numel(steps)
   dt = steps(tstep);

Call non-linear solver solvefi.m

   [state, conv] = solvefi(state0, dt, bc, system, @equationCompositional, param);

   if ~(conv)
      error('Convergence failed. Try smaller time steps.')

   if param.do_save
      save(fullfile(param.output_dir, sprintf('state%05d.mat', tstep)), 'state');
   state0 = state;

Published October 8, 2014