xPhD: Integration of Electric Vehicles into Power Distribution Systems – The Norwegian Case Study
With the massive increase in the integration of Electric Vehicles (EVs), their share of energy consumption has shifted from fossil fuels to electricity. This shift in turn heavily relies on the safe, reliable and cost-efficient operation of electricity distribution networks. Traditionally, grids were built to transfer electricity from the generation side to the consumer at the endpoint, and neither designed to be smartly controlled, nor to integrate battery storage, photovoltaic solar panels (PV), wind energy and shiftable loads on the consumer side. The shift toward an active controllable distribution grid with active end-users requires new methods and tools for planning and operation. With this perspective, the aim of this PhD thesis is to develop a tool to integrate and optimise a large number of Stationary Energy Storage Systems (SESS) and EVs in the distribution grid.