400 customers
Here you find instance definitions and the best known solutions (to our knowledge) for the 400 customer instances of Gehring & Homberger's extended VRPTW benchmark. The version reported here has a hierarchical objective: 1) Minimize number of vehicles 2) Minimize total distance. Distance and time should be calculated with double precision, total distance results are rounded to two decimals. Exact methods typically use a total distance objective and use integral or low precision distance and time calculations. Hence, results are not directly comparable.

Instance definitions (text)

Here is a zip file with the 400 customer instances.

Best known results for Gehring & Homberger's 400 customer instances

The instance names in blue are hyperlinks to files with corresponding detailed solutions. They have all been checked by our solution checker. Note that many best known solutions do not have a reference to a peer reviewed publication. For these, important details on the solution algorithm, the computing time, and the experimental platform are probably not available. Further, there is no guarantee that the solutions have been produced without using external information, such as detailed solutions published earlier. We may later introduce two categories: 'properly published' and 'freestyle', the latter with no restrictions.

Instance Vehicles Distance Reference  Date           Comment
c1_4_1 40 7152.02 MBD  2005 There are questions whether 7152.02 is valid, Several authors report 7152.06 
c1_4_2 36 7686.38 VCGP 31-jul-12  
c1_4_3 36 7060.67 VCGP 31-jul-12  
c1_4_4 36 6803.24 VCGP 31-jul-12  
c1_4_5 40 7152.02 MBD 2005  There are questions whether 7152.02 is valid, several authors report 7152.06 
c1_4_6 40 7153.41 MBD 2005   There are questions whether 7153.41 is valid, several authors report 7153.45
c1_4_7 39 7417.92 PGDR 17-oct-07 Detailed solution by SCR 
c1_4_8 37 7347.23 BC4 05-apr-12  
c1_4_9 36 7042.53 Q 19-oct-15  
c1_4_10 36 6860.63 BSJ2 20-sep-07 Detailed solution by SCR 
c2_4_1 12 4116.05 MBD 2005   There are questions whether 4116.05 is valid, several authors report 4116.14
c2_4_2 12 3929.89 MB 30-jun-05 There are questions whether 3929.89 is valid, several authors report 3930.05
c2_4_3 11 4018.02 VCGP 31-jul-12  
c2_4_4 11 3702.49 VCGP 31-jul-12  
c2_4_5 12 3938.69 BSJ2 20-sep-07 Detailed solution by SCR  
c2_4_6 12 3875.94 MB 16-sep-03 Detailed solution by SCR 
c2_4_7 12 3894.13 MBD 2005  There are questions whether 3894.13 is valid, several authors report 3894.16 
c2_4_8 11 4233.20 CAINIAO Apr-19  
c2_4_9 12 3864.68 MB2 18-jul-12 There are questions whether 3864.68 is valid, several authors report  3865.65
c2_4_10 11 3825.67 SCR 08-sep-18  
r1_4_1 40 10372.31 NBD 2009 Detailed solution by BC4
r1_4_2 36 8898.15



Oct-18 Tie 
r1_4_3 36 7808.34 Q 08-feb-18  
r1_4_4 36 7282.78 VCGP 31-jul-12  
r1_4_5 36 9222.96 SCR 19-dec-21  
r1_4_6 36 8358.69 Q 04-dec-17  
r1_4_7 36 7616.15 Q 04-dec-17  
r1_4_8 36 7257.28 Q 07-sep-17  
r1_4_9 36 8694.78 SCR Oct-18  
r1_4_10 36 8094.10 Q 09-dec-16  
r2_4_1 8 9210.15 NBD 2009 Detailed solution by BC4
r2_4_2 8 7606.75 BSJ2 20-sep-07 Detailed solution by SCR 
r2_4_3 8 5911.07 VCGP 31-jul-12  
r2_4_4 8 4241.47 NBD 2009 Detailed solution provided by BC4
r2_4_5 8 7127.83



Oct-18 Tie 
r2_4_6 8 6122.60 BC4 05-apr-12  
r2_4_7 8 5018.53 BC4 05-apr-12  
r2_4_8 8 4015.60 NBD 2009 Detailed solution by SCR 
r2_4_9 8 6400.10 BC4 05-apr-12  
r2_4_10 8 5773.17 SCR 19-dec-21  
rc1_4_1 36 8571.32 SCR 19-dec-21  
rc1_4_2 36 7892.52 EOE 01-dec-16  
rc1_4_3 36 7533.05 Q 03-oct-17  
rc1_4_4 36 7308.55 Q 22-jun-16  
rc1_4_5 36 8172.64 Q 17-oct-17  
rc1_4_6 36 8164.98 EOE 01-dec-16  
rc1_4_7 36 7948.51 EOE 01-dec-16  
rc1_4_8 36 7772.57 SCR 13-jul-18 MB2 report 7760.23 but there are questions whether is valid.
rc1_4_9 36 7733.35 CAINIAO Oct-18  
rc1_4_10 36 7596.04 EOE 01-dec-16  
rc2_4_1 11 6682.37 NBD 2009 Detailed solution by BC4
rc2_4_2 9 6180.62 BC4 05-apr-12  
rc2_4_3 8 4930.84 NBD 2009 Detailed solution by BC4
rc2_4_4 8 3631.01 NBD 2009 Detailed solution by VCGP
rc2_4_5 8 6706.44 SCR 19-dec-21  
rc2_4_6 8 5766.61 NBD 2009 Detailed solution by BC4
rc2_4_7 8 5334.72 Q 25-sep-17  
rc2_4_8 8 4790.14 SCR 19-dec-21  
rc2_4_9 8 4551.11 Q 15-nov-17  
rc2_4_10 8 4278.61 VCGP 31-jul-12  

NB! The R1_4_1 entry has been changed to an inferior value. The previous entry was based on a report without a detailed solution. Later, it appeared that the solution is infeasible, see reference NBD.

The updated entry is based on a detailed solution that has been checked by our solution checker.


B - O. Bräysy, "A Reactive Variable Neighborhood Search Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows," Working Paper, University of Vaasa, Finland, 2001.

BC4, Mirosław BŁOCHO, Zbigniew J. CZECH, "A parallel memetic algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with time windows". 3PGCIC 2013, 8th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing.

BSJ2 - Bjørn Sigurd Johansen, , DSolver version2 05-2005.

CAINIAO - Zhu He, Longfei Wang, Weibo Lin, Yujie Chen, Haoyuan Hu ( ), Yinghui Xu, & VRP Team (Ying Zhang, Guotao Wu, Kunpeng Han et al.). Unpublished work by CAINIAO AI.

EOE - Eirik Krogen Hagen, EOE Koordinering DA. Exploring infeasible and feasible regions of the VRPTW and PDPTW through penalty based tabu search. Working paper.

GH - H. Gehring and J. Homberger, "A Parallel Two-phase Metaheuristic for Routing Problems with Time Windows," Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research, 18, 35-47, (2001).

JNMB - Jakub Nalepa, Miroslaw Blocho, "Temporally Adaptive Co-operation Schemes". working paper.

MBD - D. Mester, O. Bräysy and W. Dullaert. "A Multi-parametric Evolution Strategies Algorithm for Vehicle Routing Problems". Working Paper, Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Israel (2005).

MB - Mester, D. and O. Bräysy (2005), “Active Guided Evolution Strategies for Large Scale Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows”. Computers & Operations Research 32, 1593-1614.

MB2 - Mester, D & O. Bräysy (2012). "A new powerful metaheuristic for the VRPTW”, working paper, University of Haifa, Israel.

NBC - Jakub Nalepa, Miroslaw Blocho, and Zbigniew J. Czech. "Co-operation schemes for the parallel memetic algorithm". In Roman Wyrzykowski, Jack Dongarra, Konrad Karczewski, and Jerzy Waniewski, editors, Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 191–201. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014. ISBN 978-3-642-55223-6. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-55224-3 19.

NBD - Yuichi Nagata, Olli Bräysy, and Wout Dullaert (2010). A penalty-based edge assembly memetic algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with time windows. Comput. Oper. Res. 37, 4 (April 2010), 724-737

PGDR - Eric Prescott-Gagnon, Guy Desaulniers and Louis-Martin Rousseau. A Branch-and-Price-Based Large Neighborhood Search Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows. (2007)

RP - S. Ropke & D.Pisinger. "A general heuristic for vehicle routing problems",  technical report, Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen.

SCR - Piotr Sielski (), Piotr Cybula, Marek Rogalski (), Mariusz Kok, Piotr Beling, Andrzej Jaszkiewicz, Przemysław Pełka. Emapa S.A (http://www.emapa.pl), "New methods of VRP problem optimization", unpublished research funded by The National Centre for Research and Development. project number: POIR.01.01.01.-00-0222/16.

Q - Quintiq. http://www.quintiq.com/optimization/vrptw-world-records.html .

VCGP - T. Vidal, T. G. Crainic, M. Gendreau, C. Prins. "A hybrid genetic algorithm with adaptive diversity management for a large class of vehicle routing problems with time-windows", Computers & Operations Research, Vol. 40, No. 1. (January 2013), pp. 475-489.

Published April 18, 2008