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Flow diagnostics

Flow diagnostics
Flow diagnostics are simple and controlled numerical flow experiments run to probe a reservoir model, establish connections and basic volume estimates, and measure dynamic heterogeneity. Flow diagnostic quantities are quick to compute and can thus be used interactively to explore fluid communication in a geological model before or after more comprehensive multiphase flow simulations.
## BackgroundTo choose the right recovery strategy and optimize its field-scale efficiency, reservoir engineers need to develop a qualitative understanding of the reservoir, explore alternative well placements, and consider different techniques for mobilizing immobile oil and improving sweep efficiency, etc. There is a strong need for efficient and ## Flow diagnosticsFlow diagnostics refers to simplified numerical simulations a reservoir engineer can use to quickly locate regions likely to remain unswept, understand how injectors and producers communicate, estimate sweep and displacement efficiency, compute allocation factors, and generally assess the effect of heterogeneity and uncertainty. Flow diagnostics give a set of visually intuitive quantities that: - give the travel time for mass-less particles that passively follow the flow field from an injector into the reservoir and from a point in the reservoir to the nearest producer;
- delineate regions drained by given producers or swept (flooded) by given injectors;
- determine whether pairs of injectors and producers communicate or not and measure the relative strength of their connection;
- determine how flux is allocated between different injectors and producers;
- establish the volumetric region influenced by specific well-pairs;
- give the residence-time distribution of all flow paths connecting pairs of injectors and producers;
- measure the dynamic heterogeneity within drainage, sweep, or well-pair regions.
All these quantities are quick to compute and can thus be used interactively to explore fluid communication in a geological model before or after more comprehensive multiphase flow simulations. Use of flow diagnostics to prescreen and post-process accurate reservoir models, or ensembles of such models, will make better use of dynamic simulations and reduce the turnaround time for modeling workflows, e.g., by reducing the need for upscaling, reducing ensemble sizes, improving selection of representative sector models, etc. Flow diagnostics can also be used as surrogate models providing recovery factors and economic quantities like net present value.
## Additional literature- O. Møyner, S. Krogstad, and K.-A. Lie. The application of flow diagnostics for reservoir management. SPE J., Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 306-323, 2015. DOI: 10.2118/171557-PA
- K.-A. Lie. An Introduction to Reservoir Simulation Using MATLAB/GNU Octave: User Guide for the MATLAB Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (MRST). Chapter 13: Flow Diagnostics, pp. 477 - 517, Cambridge University Press, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108591416.018
- F. Watson, S. Krogstad, K.-A. Lie. Flow diagnostics for model ensembles. ECMOR XVII - 17th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery, 2020. DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.202035133
- S. Krogstad and H.M. Nilsen. Efficient adjoint-based well-placement optimization using flow diagnostics proxies. ECMOR XVII - 17th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery, 2020. DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.202035227.
- M. Borregales, O. Møyner, S. Krogstad, K.-A. Lie. Data-driven models based on flow diagnostics. ECMOR XVII - 17th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery, 2020. DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.202035122
- K.-A. Lie, S. Krogstad, O. Møyner. Application of flow diagnostics and multiscale methods for reservoir management. 2015 Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston, Texas, USA, 23-25 February 2015. DOI: 10.2118/173306-MS
- A. F. Rasmussen and K.-A. Lie. Discretization of flow diagnostics on stratigraphic and unstructured grids. ECMOR XIV, Catania, Sicily, Italy, 8-11 September 2014. DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.20141844
- J. R. Natvig and K.-A. Lie. Fast computation of multiphase flow in porous media by implicit discontinuous Galerkin schemes with optimal ordering of elements. J. Comput. Phys, Vol. 227, Issue 24, pp. 10108-10124, 2008. Doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2008.08.024.
- B. Eikemo, K.-A. Lie, H.K. Dahle, and G.T. Eigestad. A discontinuous Galerkin method for transport in fractured media using unstructured triangular grids. Adv. Water Resour. Vol. 32, Issue 4, pp. 493-506. 2009. Doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2008.12.010.
- J. R. Natvig, K.-A. Lie, B. Eikemo, and I. Berre. An efficient discontinuous Galerkin method for advective transport in porous media. Adv. Water Resour, Vol. 30, Issue 12, pp. 2424-2438, 2007. Doi: 10.1016/j.advwatres.2007.05.015
- M. Shahvali, B. Mallison, K. Wei, and H. Gross. An alternative to streamlines for flow diagnostics on structured and unstructured grids. SPE Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, September 2012, pp. 768-778. Doi: 10.2118/146446-PA
- G. M. Shook and K. M. Mitchell. A robust measure of heterogenity for ranking earth models: the F Phi curve and dynamics Lorenz coefficient. Paper SPE 124625. SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4-7 October, 2009. Doi: 10.2118/12465-MS.
## DownloadThis module is included with MRST from version 2012b and onwards under the name 'diagnostics'. |
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