Oversikt over gjennomførte aktiviteter i prosjektet

Scientific Papers

  1. Broch OJ, Alver MO, Bekkby T, Gundersen H, Forbord S, Handå A, Skjermo, J, Hancke K (2019). Kelp cultivation potential in coastal and offshore regions. Frontiers in Marine Science.
  2. Endresen PC, Norvik C, Kristiansen D, Birkevold J, Volent Z (2019). Current Induced Drag Forces on Cultivated Sugar Kelp. Proceedings ASME 2019. Volume 6: Ocean Space Utilization. doi.10.1115/OMAE2019-96375
  3. Forbord S, Matsson S, Brodahl G, Bluhm B, Broch OJ, Handå A, Metaxas A, Skjermo J, Steinhovden KB, Olsen Y (2020) Latitudinal and seasonal variation of growth, chemical content and biofouling of cultivated Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae) along the Norwegian coast. Journal of Applied Phycology. doi:10.1007/s10811-020
  4. Forbord S, Steinhovden KB, Solvang T, Handå A, Skjermo J., (2019) Effect of seeding methods and hatchery period on sea cultivation of Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae): a Norwegian case-study. Journal of Applied Phycology.
  5. Fossberg J, Forbord S, Broch OJ, Malzahn A, Jansen H, Handå A, Førde H, Bergvik M, Fleddum AL, Skjermo J, Olsen Y (2018). The Potential for Upscaling Kelp (Saccharina latissima) Cultivation in Salmon-Driven Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA). Frontiers in Marine Science 5:418
  6. Matsson S, Christie H, Fieler R (2019). Variation in biomass and biofouling of kelp, Saccharina latissima, cultivated in the Arctic, Norway. Aquaculture 506, p 445-452.
  7. Schmedes PS, Nielsen MM, Petersen JK (2019a). Improved Palmaria palmata hatchery methods for tetraspore release, even settlement and high seedling survival using strong water agitation and macerated propagules. Algal Research.
  8. Schmedes PS and Nielsen MM (2019b). New hatchery methods for efficient spore use and seedling production of Palmaria palmata (dulse). Journal of Applied Phycology. doi: 10.1007/s10811-019-01998-0
  9. Su L, Pang S, Shan T, Li X (2017). Large-scale hatchery of the kelp Saccharina japonica: a case study experience at Lvshun in Northern China, Journal of Applied Phycology. Doi 10.1007/s10811-017-1154-y
  10. Thomson A, Visch W, Jonsson P, Nylund GM, Pavia H, Stanley M. Drivers of local adaptation and connectivity in the sugar kelp, Saccharina latissima across the Baltic-North Sea environmental transition zone. Submitted.




  1. Alver, MO (2019) Industrial production line for seedlings. SINTEF. 
  2. Alver MO, Solvang T, Dybvik H (2018a) State of the art Seedling, Deployment and Harvest technology. SINTEF.
  3. Alver MO, Solvang T., Kvæstad, B (2018b) Proof of concept on seeding systems. SINTEF.
  4. Bale ES (2017) Development of area efficient and standardized structures for macroalgae cultivation. SINTEF.
  5. Broch OJ, Tiller R, Skjermo J, Handå A (2017). Potensialet for dyrking av makroalger i Trøndelag. SINTEF Ocean
  6. Broch OJ, Skjermo J, Handå A (2016). The potential for large scale cultivation of macroalgae in Møre and Romsdal.
  7. Dybvik H (2016) Concept development for macroalgae seeding, deployment and harvesting. SINTEF student report.
  8. Eggesvik AT (2019b) SPOKe prototype. SINTEF summer student report.
  9. Norvik C (2016) "Design of artificial seaweeds for assessment of hydrodynamic properties of seaweed farms". SINTEF summer student report.
  10. Wiik I (2018) Concept development of details for macroalgae cultivation. SINTEF summer student report.



  1. Balasubramaniam M (2017). Veksteksperiment av makroalger med kommersiell interesse; med hovedfokus på Palmaria palmata. UiO.
  2. Brodahl GE (2018). The effects of variable environmental conditions on growth, nutritional state and protein content in cultivated S. latissima in Norway. NTNU.
  3. Bøe RR (2019). Investigation of important steps in Palmaria palmata cultivation. NTNU.
  4. Dahlen V (2018). Characterization of the initial ammonium uptake in Saccharina latissima: Possible implications for an IMTA system with intensive salmon farming. NTNU.
  5. Duarte A (2017). Optimization of seedling production using vegetative gametophytes of Alaria esculenta. U. Porto.
  6. Eggesvik AT (2019a) Robot for automated seaweed deployment and harvesting. NTNU.
  7. Evans, O. (2018) Modeling the light field in macroalgae aquaculture. The University of Akron.
  8. Foldal S (2018). Morfologiske relasjonar til dyrka S. latissima ved tre stasjonar langs Norskekysten. NTNU.
  9. Norvik C (2017) Design of Artificial Seaweeds for Assessment of Hydrodynamic Properties of Seaweed Farms. NTNU
  10. Næss T (2018). Analyses of population genetics of Saccharina latissima (sugar kelp) in Norway. UiB.

Book chapter

  • Forbord S, Steinhovden KB, Rød KK, Handå A., Skjermo J (2018). Cultivation protocol for Saccharina latissima. In: Charrier, B., Wichard, T. & Reddy, C. R. K. (eds.) Protocols for Macroalgae Research. U.S.A.: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, p. 37-59.

Scientific publications in prep

  1. Broch OJ, Evans O, Foldal S, Forbord S et al. Constraints for large scale and industrial kelp cultivation.
  2. Bruhn Annette, Teis Boderskov, Helle Buur, Morten Foldager Pedersen, Silje Forbord, Jørgen LS Hansen, Signe Høgslund, Dorte Krause-Jensen, Sanna Matsson et al. Ecosystem effects of large-scale macroalgae cultivation.
  3. Etter et al. Possibility of high quality macroalge production in IMTA by recycling nutrients from aquaculture.
  4. Etter et al. Bioremediation potential by nitrate and ammonia assimilation in Saccharina latissima.
  5. Etter et al. Importance of phosphate assimilation in Saccharina latissima for bioremediation potential.
  6. Etter et al. Optimal configuration of environmental and economical macroalgae IMTA cultivation systems.
  7. Forbord et al. Protein content and growth of S. latissima grown at various light and nitrate supply in open sea
  8. Forbord et al. Initial short-term N-uptake responses in young S. latissima under N-saturated and N-limited cond.
  9. Jevne L., Forbord S., Olsen Y. The effect of nutrient availability and light conditions on growth and intracellular nitrogen components of tank cultivated Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae).
  10. Matsson et al. Variations in biofouling as an effect of deployment. Can a prolonged growing season delay the onset of biofoulers?
  11. Næss et al. Connections between cost and fjord populations of the kelp Saccharina latissima in Norway.
  12. Saifullah et al. Seasonal variation in the carbohydrate composition of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) from different farming stations along the Norwegian Coastline.
  13. Saifullah et al. Improving carbohydrate composition of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) through algal movement
  14. Schmedes PS, Nielsen MM, Andersen KL, Petersen JK. Cultivation of Palmaria palmata in open water - the effect of seedling size at deployment and farm location on harvest yield.
  15. Schmedes PS, Nielsen MM, Petersen JK. Productivity and yields of Palmaria palmata affected by irradiance, salinity and nutrient availability – interventional cultivation as a production method?
  16. Skjermo J, Broch OJ et al. Biomass and composition of S. latissima in exposed, open IMTA systems. 
  17. Solvang, T, Alver, MO, Bale, ES.: Automation concepts for industrial scale production.
  18. Sjøtun et al. Functional gene mapping related to stress resilience and growth performance in cultivar strains.
  19. Thomson et al. Seascape genomics reveal strong adaptation and population structuring in sugar kelp across the heterogenous seascape of the Scottish west coast.
  20. Thomson et al. Comparative regional population genomics and adaptive ecological signatures of selection in the brown algae Saccharina latissima.