Outcomes and Impacts

Seedling Biology

  • An industrial seedlings production protocol for Saccharina latissima.
  • Pre-incubation of S. latissima seedlings gives superior growth at sea.
  • Improved hatchery techniques for Alaria esculenta.
  • An improved hatchery protocol for Palmaria palmata.
  • Successful sea cultivation of P. palmata.

Sea Cultivation

  • A Monitoring program showed a great potential for cultivation of S. latissima from 58 to 69°N, except in areas with high local environmental variations, as high freshwater run-off.
  • A latitudinal pattern in a south to north gradient was found for growth (length and biomass), protein content and biofouling.
  • Different deployment dates yields different amount of biofouling organisms, growth and shedding.
  • Protein content can be manipulated by lowering cultivation lines during the growth period.
  • Linear uptake of nitrate was found for substrate concentration up to 18 µM.


  • Growth of S. latissima was found to be higher in sporophytes from the Tromsø area than in sporophytes from the Bergen area, in conditions simulating the sea environment in Tromsø during mid-May.
  • A population genetic analysis using microsatellites suggested good gene flow between stations with S. latissima along the coast, except between some fjord populations and coastal populations, and between coast stations in South-Norway (Skagerrak-Frøya) and North-Norway (Troms-Finnmark).
  • Microsatellites potentially under selection or associated with a part of the genome under selection were found.
  • Removing a microsatellite potentially under positive selection caused changes in the genetic structuring in the Skagerrak region and in some fjord populations, suggesting adaptation of populations.
  • The results suggest that during cultivation of S. latissima special care should be taken to prevent exchange of genetic material between South- and North-Norway, and between the coast and enclosed fjords.
  • A consistent method for dd-RADseq sequencing of S. latissima was developed allowing the development of high-resolution genome-wide SNP marker sets for genotyping and population analysis.
  • Genome-wide selection scans and genomic-environmental association scans provided strong evidence for local adaptation and selection in S. latissima in Scotland and Sweden.
  • Adaptive loci were found to be in association with numerous environmental variables including mean temperature, summer temperature, chlorophyll and minimum salinity.

Marine Modelling

  • Model based maps and estimates for the cultivation potential of S. latissima along and outside the Norwegian coast.
  • Some of the results (maps) available for use in site selection with google maps (DST).
  • Dynamical growth model for bryozoan fouling on S. latissima fronds.
  • Mechanistic light shading model for kelp cultures, taking into account the interactions between the kelp fronds and the light field.
  • Updated S. latissima growth model.
  • Simplified model based assessment for the cultivation potential for P. palmata.

Seedling, Deployment and Harvest Technology

  • A lab system pilot for seedling production.
  • Machine vision for rapid assessment of seedling quality (size and density) before deployment.
  • An onspinning machine for seedling twine on cylinders.
  • A spinning machine for deployment of seeded ropes (from cylinders to ropes).
  • A design concept for Standardized Production of Kelp (SPOKe).

Sea Farms

  • Increased knowledge of mechanical properties of S. latissima.
  • Forces on ropes grown with S. latissima from steady currents for a variety of growth densities and specimen growth
  • Parametrized force model for ropes grown with S. latissima – enables development of numerical methods and more precise modelling and design of seaweed farms.