Scientific publications


  • D2-1: Requirements on the project demonstrators and manufacturing processes.
    The integration of AM in the supply chain of maritime components needs commune understanding of the technology advantages and limitations versus the requirements. The industries in the supply chain need to establish effective and appropriate plans for manufacturing and qualification procedure. Such plan should be based on class society standards and guidelines to ensure the certification of the manufacturing process and manufactured component. This report overviews some of current standards and guidelines related to directed energy deposition (DED) processes of metals. It defines the requirements on the project demonstrators (water jet impeller, propeller blade and pump impeller) according to class society guidance. It including requirements on geometry, surface finishing, physical and mechanical properties as well as requirements testing.
  • D2-2: Plans for DED manufacturing and qualification testing.
    This report includes the plans for manufacturing and qualification testing of the project demonstrators (water jet impeller, pump impeller and propeller blade). The manufacturing and testing procedures for each demonstrator were planned based on the requirements in accordance with class society guidance (deliverable D2-1).
  • D3-1: Report describing upcycled grinding waste as powder for DED.
    The FlexiMan project aims to develop a sustainable circular AM process chain for maritime components by recycling aluminium bronze grinding waste to be used as raw material to manufacture ship propellers with a laser-powder DED process. In this report, the developed process chain for recycling, the performed experiments investigating the various process steps and the ongoing experiments are described. Furthermore, established cooperations with specialized companies and research institutes are described.

  • D3-2: Describing quality assessment of conventional and recycled powder for the DED processes.
    This report summarizes the quality assessment methods and results of conventional DED powder as well as of (recycled) grinding chips. The conventional powders are used to produce the water jet impeller from duplex steel, the hybrid pump impeller from IN625 and the propeller blade from aluminium bronze. The propeller blade will also be manufactured from recycled aluminium bronze grinding chips. The methods described in this report are performed to assess the different powder properties, and subsequently are utilized to define suitable powder characteristics the should be achieved in the chip recycling steps.

  • D4-1 and D4-1: Process parameters and postprocessing-heat treatment for DED parts produced with powder, both conventional and recycled, which includes.
    This report summarizes the results from the work performed on DED process optimization for three selected demonstrators, including water jet impeller, pump impeller and propeller blade. The report shortly introduces the optimization of DED process parameters for both conventional powder (2205 Duplex stainless-steel, Inconel 625 and low carbon martensitic steel 1.4313, and aluminium bronze) and recycled powder (recycled bronze waste). In addition, the post-processing heat treatment of 2205 Duplex stainless-steel part produced by LMD material is briefly described. The values of some DED process parameters are omitted as they are enclosed by a non-disclosure agreement and cannot be shared.

  • D6-1 and D6-2: Influence of Process Design on Materials Properties and Evaluation of DED Processes according to the requirements.
    This report combines the project deliverables D6-1 and D6-2 which describe the influence of DED process design on materials properties and the evaluation of DED Processes according to the requirements of the project's demonstrators. The requirements are reported in the deliverable D2-1 for water jet impeller, propeller blade and pump impeller. The manufacturing plans are defined in Deliverables D2-2.