To achieve electromagnetic compatibility, any product, including an electric vehicle, must satisfy requirements for both electromagnetic emissions and electromagnetic immunitye performance.
Electromagnetic emissions compliance means the ability of a system to function satisfactorily in its electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances. Electromagnetic disturbance means any electromagnetic phenomenon which may degrade the performance of any system that must operate in the same environment. An electromagnetic disturbance may be electromagnetic noise, an unwanted signal or a change in the propagation medium itself. The directive 2004/104/EC regulates maximum radiation of both broadband and narrowband signal characteristics at different frequencies (see Annex IV, V and VII). These requirements were developed to ensure that radio and television services would not compromised by electromagnetic emissions from vehicle systems.
Electromagnetic immunity means the ability of a vehicle to operate without degradation of performance in the presence of electromagnetic disturbances, which may include wanted radio frequency signals from radio transmitters or radiated in-band emissions of industrialscientific-medical (ISM) apparatus, internal or external to the vehicle. To ensure immunity to electromagnetic radiation the directive 2004/104/EC has several basic conditions (see Annex VI). When testing the vehicle it is exposed to electromagnetic radiation in the 20 to 2 000 MHz frequency range. Some of the failure criteria at a nominal speed of 50 km/h ± 20% are:
The main components of the new electric drive for automotive applications are the electric motor, the power converter, the power supply and the cables connecting the components. The power converter is known to be the main EMF source.
Low Voltage Directive Working Party (LVDWP) propose that the off-board elements of the charging system are considered to be within the scope of the Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC, whereas the electric powertrain and the on-board elements of the charging system would be within the scope of the Framework Directive on Motor Vehicles 2007/46/EC.