Efficiency Enhancement of Gas Turbines - SP1
This subproject focuses on the design of Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGTs) where the exhaust heat runs a bottoming cycle for additional power generation and increased efficiency. For this, we need new, compact, and efficient heat recovery heat exchangers. Design of efficient CCGTs includes development of effective control strategies for gas turbine and CCGT operation.
The main objective of SP1 is to reduce the emissions related to offshore gas turbine operation. A larger share of part-load operation is expected due to the inclusion of renewable energy sources into the offshore energy system. One goal of SP1 is therefore to increase the part-load efficiency of the gas turbine (addressed in Task 1.2). Using the exhaust gas from a gas turbine to run a bottoming cycle to produce steam or additional electricity is another measure to reduce emissions. This concept has been implemented before. However, the weight and footprint of a bottoming cycle system need to be minimal to enable widespread implementation. In SP1 we develop more compact and lightweight designs considering thermodynamic optimisation, possibly using other working fluids than steam (addressed in Task 1.3). Analysing their operation and proposing optimal operational strategies for the CCGTs is the goal of Task 1.1.
MAIN RESULTS IN 2022
- Robustifying underlying models both for speed-up, heat source flexibility, and stability of geometry describing heat recovery steam generators for offshore bottoming cycles.
- Development of models for printed circuit heat exchangers for improved performance.
- Updated simulation results for a simple steam power cycle and for a recuperated CO2 cycle.
- Definition of the control problem for bottoming cycles for power production. Implementation of advanced control structures for steam bottoming cycles for power production in Dymola.
- Simulation results of dynamic model of a steam bottoming cycle for power production and a combined cycle with two gas turbines and a steam bottoming cycle for power production.
- Three peer-reviewed publications:
- M. A. Motamed, and L. O. Nord (2022) "Part-load efficiency boost in offshore organic Rankine cycles with a cooling water flow rate control strategy". Energy. vol. 257. ddoi: 10.1016/j.energy.2022.124713
- C. Zotică, R. M. Montañés, A. Reyes-Lúa, and S. Skogestad, (2022) “Control of steam bottoming cycles using nonlinear input and output transformations for feedforward disturbance rejection,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 969–974, doi: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2022.07.570.
- M. A. Motamed, and L. O. Nord (2022) "Development of a simulation tool for design and off-design performance assessment of offshore combined heat and power cycles". Proceedings of the 63rd International Conference of Scandinavian Simulation Society, SIMS 2022, Trondheim, Norway, September 20-21, 2022. doi: 10.3384/ecp192001
- Three oral presentations in international conferences:
- SIMS 2022: 63rd International Conference of Scandinavian Simulation Society (Trondheim, Norway, Sep. 20-21) Oral presentation: "Development of a simulation tool for design and off-design performance assessment of offshore combined heat and power cycles".
- DYCOPS 2022: 13th IFAC Symposium on Dynamics and Control of Process Systems, including Biosystems (Busan, Korea/Hybrid, June 14-17) Oral presentation: "Control of steam bottoming cycles using nonlinear input and output transformations".
- NPCW - Nordic Process Control Workshop. (Luleå, Sweden, 17-18 March). Oral presentation: "Static input transformations for disturbance rejection, decoupling and linearization - with application to temperature control for steam generators".
- Lead in Case Study (2022-2023) "Advanced power fluctuation control for combined wind, gas and steam turbine systems", in which the dynamic CCGT model developed in SP1 is used using data. Cooperation with SP5.
- One successful KSP spin-off application (DECAMMP). Together with SP2. Project to start in 2023.
IMPACT AND INNOVATIONS
- Development of a simulation tool for design and off-design performance assessment of offshore combined heat and power cycles.
- Definition of control problem and dynamic simulation results for compact offshore steam bottoming cycles for power production using advanced control structures implemented in a detailed dynamic model.
- Advancement in understanding of bottoming cycles using CO2 as working fluid and its potential for weight, size, and performance improvement.
MAIN RESULTS IN 2021
- Further development of in-house framework for simultaneous optimisation of component
- Specifications and process parameters for bottoming cycles. Model reformulation for improving robustness. Web interface (WEB-GUI) for thermodynamic simulation of bottoming cycles delivered this year.
- Simulation results for a simple steam power cycle and for a recuperated CO2 cycle.
- Definition of standard configuration for a combined cycle to be used for coordinated work between Task 1.1 and Task 1.3.
- Creation of a new Dymola package "LowEmission_SP1" with a simple and self-explaining package structure to be used for the analysis of dynamic operation of steam bottoming cycles. The package includes gas turbine models, 1D dynamic process models of once-through steam generators (OTSG), a steam turbine model and a condenser model.
- Definition of the control problem for bottoming cycles for power production. Beginning of the work for implementation of control structures in Dymola.
- Participation in the 6th international seminar on ORC power systems, Munich-2021 “Improving the off-design efficiency of Organic Rankine bottoming cycles by variable area nozzle turbine technology" by PhD student Mohammad A. Motamed and supervisor Ass. Prof. Lars O. Nord. Full (peer-reviewed) paper published.
IMPACT AND INNOVATIONS
Improvement of robustness of new methodology for simultaneous optimisation of component specifications and process parameters. This methodology was implemented in the web interface for analysing bottoming cycles.
- Further development of framework for simultaneous optimisation of component design and process parameters by
- Including full geometry description of plate heat exchangers and finned tube heat recovery heat exchangers.
- Adding a recuperator to the cycle for improved effi ciency.
- The heat recovery heat exchanger is a key component of a bottoming cycle, but most simulation models are 1D-models. A dynamic 2D-model was developed in 2020 to enable more detailed simulations.
- PhD student Mohammad Ali Motamed started working in the summer. Tentative title for his thesis is "Assessment of alternative concepts for combined cycle gas turbine operation under varying loads".
- Summer researcher Knut Andre Grytting Prestsveen successfully developed a web interface to the process optimisation model. This will be launched 2021.
Impact and innovations
- Compact bottoming cycle designs, possibly with new working fl uids, which could enable widespread implementation.
- New methodology for simultaneous optimisation of component specifications and process parameters.
This SP focuses on the design of Combined Cycles Gas Turbines (CCGTs) where the exhaust heat runs a Steam Bottoming Cycle (SBC) for additional power generation and increased eﬃciency. New, compact, and eﬃcient SBC heat exchangers, designed for varying heat transfer and boiling regimes along the heat exchanger tubes, are essential. Design of eﬃcient CCGTs includes development of effective control strategies for gas turbine and CCGT operation.
The main objective is to reduce the emissions related to offshore gas turbine operation. Two approaches are being investigated. The first one is increasing the gas turbine's efficiency during part-load operation. The second approach is to recover heat from the exhaust gas to produce electricity and/or heat in a bottoming cycle.
This concept has been implemented before, but the large weight and footprint impede widespread implementation. Focus is therefore one developing more compact and lightweight designs, possibly using other working fluid as steam
- PhD position announced. Topic: "Assessment of alternative concepts for combined cycle gas turbine operation under varying loads".
- A report about gas turbine operation and transient behavior was written as basis for future research.
- A first working fluid screening was performed to compare possible working fluids that can be used in a bottoming cycle (as alternative to steam).
- The dynamic modelling and simulation of a combined cycle gas turbine was initialized in cooperation with Siemens.
Impact and innovations
- More efficient gas turbine operation
- Compact bottoming cycle designs, possibly with new working fluids, enabling widespread implementation