SP3 - Conversion technologies and emissions

Øyvind Skreiberg 

SP3 Leader,
SINTEF Energy Research


The work in SP3 involves residential wood/pellet stoves, district heat, heat and power and emissions. The objective is to demonstrate that all the energy conversion efficiencies listed in the Bioenergy Vision 2020 (cf. CenBio Annual Report 2012) are practically and economically feasible, as well as environmentally benign.

The Jordbro power plant, where the so-called ChlorOut process was implemented in a full-scale boiler designed for wood fuels (Photo: Vattenfall AB)

WP3.1 – Wood / Pellets Stoves - Leader: Morten Seljeskog 
Energy efficiencies of 0.85 will be demonstrated for selected fuel fractions, not as peak efficiencies, but as average efficiencies including cold-starts.

WP3.2 – District Heat - Leader: Michaël Becidan 
District Heat: Efficiencies of 0.9 will be demonstrated, but here the losses in heat distribution are excluded, since heat distribution falls outside the CenBio scope of work. 

WP3.3 – Heat and Power - Leader: Øyvind Skreiberg 
Heat and Power: The feasibility of efficiencies of 0.95 will be demonstrated for the combined production of heat and power. 

WP3.4 – Emissions - Leader: Mette Bugge 
Emissions: It will be demonstrated how emissions from Biomass-to-Energy plants may be reduced to below half of present regulations.  


Making wood combustion cleaner is essential, especially for the local air quality. The CenBio goal for particle emissions from residential wood stoves is 2.5 g parti-cles per kg dry wood, and increased energy efficiency. The part load issue is also important, in addition to standardization of testing methods related to EU directives.

SP3 covers as well the demonstration of increased efficiency and innovative solutions for district heat. Working within networks, such as IEA Task 32 – Biomass combustion and co-firing, and IEA Task 36 – Integrating energy recovery into solid waste management systems, and together with Avfallsforsk (national research arena) and Prewin (European industrial network for Waste to Energy, WtE), is crucial to stay at the forefront of R&D and to understand the industry needs.

Innovative concepts for combined heat and power (CHP) are also investigated, such as the ChlorOut technology developed by Vattenfall. ChlorOut is a concept reducing corrosion and fouling for biomass-fired boilers, as well as NOx, CO and dioxin emissions. The concept has been tested at the Jordbro biomass combustion plant in Sweden.

For each conversion technology investigated within SP3, issues related to emissions are in the spotlight. They are investigated through four approaches:

  • Plant emissions mapping (e.g., Energos/Hafslund WtE plant at Borregaard in 2012 and Akershus Energi bioenergy plant at Lillestrøm in 2014)
  • CFD modeling
  • Experimental studies
  • Literature surveys (e.g., NOx reduction methods)

Innovations from SP3 are initially expected in the following areas:

  • New efficient clean-burning stoves and fireplaces
  • Concepts for ultra-efficient district heating plants, possibly utilizing biogas and solid waste in synergetic combination
  • Concepts for heat and power plants with close to 100 % combined energy efficiency
  • New recipes for low-emission plants


More information on the research activities can be found in the latest CenBio Annual Report.

Published July 29, 2016