X-ray Diffractometer (XRD)
Send x-rays through a sample, see in which directions the x-rays scatter and thereby determine the crystal structure of the sample. By comparing the x-ray spectrum with a library of known substances, unknown samples can be identified.
The technique: X-rays are employed not only for medical purposes, but also for the non-destructive examination of materials. X-ray diffraction makes it possible to carry out exact and completely reliable qualitative analyses using only very small amounts of substances to be examined. Moreover, this method is much faster than analysis by chemical methods.
In crystalline substances the atoms are arranged in a regular pattern forming crystal lattices. We may think of these atoms as defining many different sets of parallel plans; the distance between the plans of a given set having a constant value d. Thus each crystal lattice, of an individual substance, has particularly spaced sets of plans, which are characteristic for that substance. Now we are able to identify substances by finding out the orientation of the sets of plans occurring in the crystal, and the distances separating the plans within the sets.
The instrument: A D-5000 X-ray Diffractometer from Siemens with scintillation counter detector and monochromatic CuKα1 radiation. The instrument allows high temperature studies in the range from room temperature to 1600°C (in vacuum). This enables the study of processes dependent on temperature, such as crystallization, lattice changes etc.
Britt Sommer, phone: +47 98 28 39 39